50,000,000 BUSHELS WHEAT IN 1915 MANITOBA— SASKATCHEWAN— ALBERTA ISSUED UNDER DIRECTION OF THE HON. W. J. ROCHE, MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR, OTTAWA, CANADA. NO CONSCRIPTION; NO WAR TAX ON LAND IN CANADA Every Canadian Soldier is a Volunteer and Canada's War Expenses are Raised by an Increase of Customs Tariff and Stamp Tax. Canada is a self-governing country and her participation in the present European war has been pmely volun- tary'. The revenue necessary to meet the expense is being raised by an in- crease of seven ami :> half per cent added to the customs tariff, taxation of hanks, loan companies, a tax on railway and steamship tickets, telegrams, postal matter, patent medicines and propri- etary articles. The farm lands of Canada arc free from any war tax and the farmers exempt to draw the wealth from the rich productiveness of the soil, without contributing to the war expenses, except as outlined above. Immense areas of Western Canada are yet open for free homesteads. Land of the same quality that has produced for the settlers now there from thirty to sixty bushels of wheat and sixty to one hundred bushels of oats to the acre, is available, the only cost being a ten-dollar entry fee. Who is Eligible. The sole head of a family or any male eighteen (IS) years of age or over, who is a British subject or who declares his intention to become a British subject; a widow having minor children of her own dependent upon her for suppert. Acquiring Homestead. To acquire a homestead, applicant must make entry in |>erson, either at the Dominion Lands Office for the district in which the land for which application is made is located, or at a sub -agen cy authorised to transact bu-iness in such district. At the time of entry a fee of ten dollars ($10.00) mast be paid. The certificate of entry which is then granted the applicant gives him authority to enter upon the land and maintain full posses- sion of it as long as he complies with the homestead requirements. Residence. To earn patent for homestead, a person must reside in a habitable house upon the land for six (6) months durine each of throe (.'I) years. Such residence, however, need not be commenced before six (<i) months after the date on which entry for the land was secured. Improvement Duties. Before being eligihle to apply for patent, a home- steader must break (plouch up) thirty (30) acres of the homestead, of which twenty (20) acres must be cropped. It is also required that a reasonable proportion of this cultivation be done during each homestead year. In some cases substitution of stock, in lieu of cultivation, is allowed. Application for Patent. When a homesteader has completed his resi- dence and cultivation duties, he makes application for patent before the agent of Dominion Lands for the district in which the homestead is located, or before a sub-agent authorized to deal with lands in such district. If the duties have been satisfactorily per- Ottawa, Ontario. 8th January, 1916. Through either lack of knowledge or from some ulterior motive numerous papers in the United States have recently advised American citizens that by going to Canada they incurred the risk of being drafted as soldiers in the present world-wide war. "Were these articles confined only to that portion of the pro-German press, which without regard to the truth, have been publishing fictitious news items intended to imjure the trade or stir up friction between the States and Canada the reports might safely be let go uncontra- dicted, but when responsible Journals are mis- led into publishing erroneous information re- garding conscription it seems advisable to make an official pronouncement upon the matter. I, therefore, beg to advise you that all troops from Canada for the war have gone voluntarily; that while the Government has the power to enforce conscription, such action has not been considered either advisable or necessary, and that even were conscription introduced it would apply to Canadian citizens only. For your information when dealing with this subject, I may say that many Canadians resident in the United States and many American citizens have crossed into Canada since the outbreak of war, have offered their services, been accepted, did valuable work and in some cases gave up their life in the cause of liberty and justice. Minister of the Interior. Fac-simile of letter sent by Hon. Dr. Roche, Minister of Interior of Canada, to United States Papers formed, a pateDt is issued to the home- steader shortly after without any further action on his part, and the land thus becomes his absolute property. CUSTOMS REGULATIONS A settler may bring into Canada, free of duty, live stock for the farm on the following basis, if he has actually owned such live stock abroad for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and has brought them into Canada within one (1) year after his arrival, viz: If horses only are brought in, sixteen (1G) allowed, if cattle are brought in, sixteen (Hi) allowed ; if sheep are brought in, one hundred and sixty (1G0) allowed; if swine are brought in, one hundred and sixiy (160) allowed. If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together, or part of each, the same proportions as above are to be observed. Duty is to be paid on live stock in excess of the number for which provision is made as above. For customs entry purposes a mare with a colt under six (6) months old is to be reckoned as one (1) animal; a cow with a calf under six (G) months old is also to be reckoned as one (1) animal. Cattle and other live stock imported into Canada are subject to quarantine regulations. The following articles have free entry: Settlers' effects, free, viz: Wearing apparel, household furniture, books, implements and tools of trade, occupa- tion or employment; guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, live stock, bicycles, carts and other vehicles, and agricultural implements in use by the settler for at least six (G) months before his removal to Canada, not to include machinery or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment or for sale; also books, pictures, family plate, furniture, personal effects and heirlooms left by bequest; provided that any dutiable articles entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered unless brought with the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or other- wise disposed of without payment of duty until after twelve (12) months' actual use in Canada. The settler will be required to take oath that all of the articles have been owned by himself or herself for at least six (6) months before removal to Canada; that none have been imported as merchandise, for use in a manufactur- ing establishment or as a contractor's outfit, or for sale; that he or she intends becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada and that the "Live Stock" enumerated is intended for his or her own use on the farm which he or she is about to occupy (or culti- vate), and not for sale or speculative purposes, nor for the use of any other person or persons. For Particulars as to reduced railway fares and settlers' rates on stock and effects; for information of any |nature relative 1<> Western Canada and the wonderful opportunities being offered to new settlers, write the learest of the following Canadian Government Agents in the United States: UNITED STATES AGENTS . V. MacINNES, ITS Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. . J. BROUGHTON, Room 412, 112 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111. EORGE A. HALL, 123 Second St., Milwaukee, Wis. . A. GARRETT, 311 Jackson St., St. Paul, Minn. RANK H. HEWITT, 5th St., Des Moines, Iowa. G. ROUTLEDGE, 301 E. Genesee St., Syracuse, N. Y. J. S. NETHERY, 82, Intcrurban Station, Columbus, Ohio. . A. LAURIER, Marquette, Mich. W. AIRD, 215 Trac t ion-Terminal Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. E. BLACK, Clifford Block, Grand Forks, N. D. J. M. MacLACHLAN, Drawer 197, Watertown, S. D. W. V. BENNETT, Room 4, Bee Bldg., Omaha, Neb. GEO. A. COOK, 2012 Main St., Kansas City, Mo. J. L. PORTE, Room 6, Dunn Block, Great Falls, Mont. J. N. GRIEVE, Cor. 1st and Post Srs., Spokane, Wash. J. E. La FORCE, 1139 Elm St., Manchester, N. H. L. N. ASSELIN, Biddeford, Me. MAX A. BOWLBY, 73 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. P. A. HARRISON, 210 North 3d St., Harrisburg, Pa. GILBERT ROCHE, Canadian Gov. Exhibit, San Diego, Cal. J. C. KOEHN, Mountain Lake, Minn. Western Canada THE PRIZE WHEAT BELT of the WORLD An Average Wheat Yield of 30>£ Bushels to the Acre for the Entire Country 40 and 50 Bushels of Wheat to the Acre Common in 1915 r ' — I* IK) ESTERN CANADA has justly earned the proud distinction of being classed as The Prize Grain Belt of the World. In quality competition, the world's championship wheat and oats were grown in Canada. Now, Western Canada proves that championship-quality goes hand-in-hand with championship- quantity. An average wheat yield of 30>2 bushels to the acre over the three provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, in 1915, constitutes a record that has never been reached anywhere else in the world. The reports of yields, printed in other pages, show these to have been remarkable, many farmers securing as high as 70 bushels per acre, and a large number getting 40 to 50 bushels per acre, 75 to 115 bushels of oats to the acre, and these were quite common. Affidavits showing these immense yields have been secured. What should be especially pleasing is that much of this was grown by Americans whose friends may now be reading these pages. Of wheat, oats, barley and flax the entire value would be over $530,000,000. Wheat in the middle of January, 1916, was worth over one dollar per bushel on the farm. With a production of 350,000,000 bushels of wheat selling over the dollar mark, the aggregate return to the farmers of Western Canada is approximately $350,000,000. The population of the three prairie provinces which produced this wealth is in round figures 1,500,000. Of these, 500,000 live in the cities and towns and are not producers in an agricultural sense, leaving 1,000,000 people to comprise the rural population who produced this $350,000,000 crop of wheat. This means $350 for every man, woman and child in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta who comprise the farming population. Taking an average of five persons to a family, it means $1,750 income to every family from wheat alone. Taking into account, also, the yield of oats, barley, flax, rye, peas, potatoes, etc., and the production of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and other live stock, one can without exagger- ation arrive at the conclusion that the average income per family throughout the prairie prov- inces for the season of 1915 has been from $3,000 to $4,000. Many individual farmers in 1915 have secured value to the extent of $10,000 to $15,000 from their crops in Western Canada. 2 CANADA WEST REMARKABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE IN WESTERN CANADA AN AMERICAN PAPER BEARS WITNESS TO THE EXTRAORDINARY OPPORTUNITIES The Northwestern Agriculturist, of Minneapolis, Minn., in a recent issue expresses the conviction that results obtained in farming in western Canada have far exceeded any predic- tions made as inducements to would-be settlers to take up land in CANADA'S GREAT PRIZE WHEAT BELT. Crops have been far greater than expected, and land values have gone up so rapidly that fortunes are made in a few years. The article reads as follows: W hen a man in the States was told a few years ago that he could secure as a free homestead 160 acres of land that would produce from 20 to 40 bushels of wheat, or 60 to 80 bushels, of oats per acre, he was skeptical; or that he could pur- chase lands at from $8 to SI 2 per acre, without residential duties, he was doubtful. The homesteader now has land worth from §15 to S70 an acre, and the man who purchased has seen his land double in price in four years' time. Both have found that the story of remark- able yields has been verified. They have had crops exceeding those promised; they have seen oats that have exceeded 100 bushels to the acre, and have grown wheat that averaged 40 and as high as 50 bushels to the acre, and their wheat was not a 5S-pound to the bushel article, but 62 and 63 pounds. They have seen within the past year or two trunk lines of rail- way constructed through their district, and t hrowing out branch lines to the gates of their farms." FIGURES THAT REVEAL THE MAGNITUDE OF WESTERN CANADA GRAIN CROP Reverting to the estimated wheat yield of Manitoba, Sas- katchewan and Alberta — 304,- 200,000 bushels — it is considered that some 40,000,000 bushels will be required for seed, domestic consumption, etc., leaving 264,000,000 bushels for export. Some idea of what this means may be gathered from the fol- lowing: (a) — 264,000,000 bushels = 15,840,000,000 lbs. = 7,920,000 tons of wheat, to move which there would be required 198,000 40-ton freight cars loaded to their fullest capacity; 198,000 cars if placed in line together would make a train 1511 miles long or one extending from Winnipeg to Salt Lake City. These can would cover every mile of a 4-track line from Chicago to Des Moines, Iowa, with 15 miles to spare. They would reach from Winnipeg through Milwaukee, Chi- cago, Cleveland, Buffalo and Albany to the Grand Central Depot in New York City. Allowing 35 cars to a locomotive, it would require 5,657 locomotives to haul 198,000 cars and 5,657 trains running at intervals of five minutes would take more than 19J^ days to pass a given point. Cb) — The full cargo capacity of S. S. "Missanabie" or " Metaguma" is 250,000 bushels of grain. Therefore it would require a fleet of 1,056 ships as large as the "Missanabie" or Corn is now being successfully grown in many parts and excellent wheat yields follow its cultivation. "Metagama" to transport across the Atlantic the enormous quantity of surplus crop produced by Canada's three Prairie Provinces. Fancy what an "Armada" that would be! (c)— 264,000,000 bushels of wheat = 15,840,000,000 lbs. 15,840,000,000 lbs. wheat- 280 = 56,571,421 barrels flour; 56,571,421 barrels flour X 175 = 9,899,998,675 loaves of bread! 24 oz. each. Enough bread to give 27,123,284 people one loaf of bread per diem for a whole year. CAUSES OF BIG YIELDS OF GRAIN IN WESTERN CANADA —SOIL, CLIMATE AND GOOD CULTIVATION The grain crops of Western Canada in 1915 may truly be said to be phenomenal, and many different reasons are now being advanced. The first of these is the light crop of 1914, which left a great deal of nour- ishment for the crop of 1915. The second is that more land was well prepared for crop in the fall of 1914 than- in any other fall in the history of the province. This certainly had a beneficial effect on the crop. A liberal rainfall in the month of June wa3 also advantageous. Another reason suggested by close stu- dents of agriculture is that the wheat crop year bore a wonder- ful bloom. Practically every cell of the wheat head was fertilized and each head filled wonderfully well. Those who have given the matter careful thought say that there is no reason why Western Canada should ever have small average yields. Farming is now becoming more of a science than it ever has been, and with the knowledge of what Western Canada soils can do, and the proper application of labor and the conservation of the soil prop- erties there is no reason why these lands should not always produce good crops. These things considered, there are those who prophesy continued heavy yields in all portions of Western Canada. Take the year 1915, for instance. |There are many cases reported of a farmer in a district getting fifty to fifty-five bushels of wheat per acre. His neighbors having the same soil, the same amount of rainfall, got but thirty. And why? Might it not have been the difference in cultivation. There is no question that breaking or summer-fallowed land always gives better results than fall or spring ploughed land. Yet one of the unaccountable things of 1915 crop was the excellent yield reported from "stubblcd-in" pieces. As high as 45 bushels per acre in some cases, and this is generally considered the poorest kind of farming. The figures in the opposite column are esti- mates of Dec. 1, 1915. Since then a revision shows the wheat crop of Manitoba, Saskatch- ewan and Alberta to be nearly 400,000,000 bushels. CANADA WEST 3 WESTERN CANADA HOLDS FREE HOMES FOR MILLIONS. THE LAND SITUATION IN WESTERN CANADA The following tables will give a quick conception of the possibilities for settlement in Western Canada. In January, 1915, less than one-half of the Total Land Area of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta had been surveyed. Of a Total Area in the three provinces of 454,7S9,67S acres, the Surveyed Area embraced 195,341,726 acres. The Total Area Surveyed and Available For Homestead Entry was 28,075,000 acres. This is equivalent to over 175,000 quarter-sections of 160 acres each, any one of which was open for entry to the first qualified person making application. 35,000 Free Farms Awaiting Settlers in Manitoba Total Land Area 143,570,698 Acres Total Surveyed Area 34,558,979 Acres Area under Homesteads 7,795,000 Acres Area Available for Homestead Entry 5,575,000 Acres 50,000 FREE FARMS Awaiting Settlers in Saskatchewan Total Land Area 152,340,320 Acres Total Surveyed Area 79,218,076 Acres Area under Homesteads 32,118,000 Acres Area Available for Homestead Entry 8,000,000 Acres 90,000 Free Farms Awaiting Settlers in Alberta Total Land Area 158,878,678 Acres Total Surveyed Area 81,564,671 Acres Area under Homesteads 20,456,000 Acres Area Available for Homestead Entry 14,500,000 Acres There is no War Tax on Land and no Taxes of any nature on Farm Stock, Implements, Chat- tels or Buildings. Western Canada wants the farms improved and therefore improvements are not taxed. WORLD'S CHAMPIONSHIPS WHAT WESTERN CANADA HOMESTEADERS HAVE DONE IN WORLD'S COMPETITIONS The homesteaders of western Canada, in competition with those of the rest of the agricultural world, have demonstrated that the best grains and the best stock are being raised in the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. The homesteaders of these provinces are entering the arena of the keenest agricultural competitions on this continent, pitted against the wealthiest farmers, ranchers and cattle kings and carrying off all the big prizes. W hat the homesteader is doing is best demonstrated by the following achievements of the past few years: 1911 AND 1914 WORLD'S BEST WHEAT Thousand-Dollar Gold Prize — Xew York Land Show, — and International Soil Products Exhibition, Wichita, Kan. Won by Seager Wheeler, Rosthern, Sask. 1912 BEST BUSHEL HARD WHEAT Dry Farming Congress, Lethbridge, Alta. — Rumley Engine, value 82,500. Won by Henry Holmes, Raymond, Alta. 1913 BEST BUSHEL HARD WHEAT Dry Farming Congress, Tulsa, Okla. — A threshing machine won by Paul Gerlach, Allen, Sask., with 71.1 oz. to the bushel. 1911-13-14 WORLD'S BEST OATS Colorado 81,500 Trophy — Won outright by J. C. Hill & Sons, Lloydminster, Sask., with one peck of "Abundance Oats." Mr. Hill has asked permission to donate a similar prize of equal value, to be known as the "Canadian Trophy." 1915 FIRST AND SECOND IN HARD WHEAT— THIRD FROM CANADIAN SEED GRAIN— FIRST IN ALFALFA At The International Dry Farming Congress, Denver, Colo., the World's Sweepstakes for the best bushel of hard spring wheat shown at the International Products Exposition, was awarded to Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan. The prize for the second best bushel of wheat also went to Saskatchewan, being won by J. S. Fields, of Regina. The tnird prize exhibit was not grown in Canada, but was raised from seed imported from Saskatchewan. The display of alfalfa was of the finest, W. A. Abbott, Maple Creek, Sack., taking first place in a class of twenty entries. Western Canada hog prices axe higher than those of Chicago Canada's barley-fed hogs make 200 lbs. at six months 4 CANADA WEST WESTERN CANADA'S GREAT DEVELOPMENT THE increase in wheat production in Western Canada in the last few years is but an index of the great development which is bound to follow in the next decade. The truth is that Canada's wheat lands have been discovered, and nothing can stem or turn aside the stream of immigration that has set in from the United States and European countries. Those who come now may get cheap or free lands, and choice of location, according to their means, and will soon be in a position to take advantage of the era of prosperity that is assured for the future. The land is going quickly, but there are millions of acres still left, as productive and fit for settlement as any already taken, and which are being rapidly reached by railways. WESTERN CANADA HAS A HOME FOR YOU IN THE PRIZE WHEAT BELT OF THE WORLD In the olden days all roads led to Rome, but to-day they lead to the Empire where wheat is King, — The Prize Wheat Belt of Western Canada. A careful investigation shows that conditions for settlement are better and the opportunities greater than they were ten years ago. At that time settlers had to go farther from the line of railway than they have today, in addition to which markets have improved and farmers are getting better prices than ever before. While there is today a great world-wide demand for wheat and the acreage is increasing rapidly; while, moreover, great efforts will have to be made to keep pace with the demand for this, the most important of our cereal crops, there is at the same time a wonderful opening in the western provinces of Canada for mixed farming. The domestic market for butter, eggs, milk, vegetables and meat is one of the best in the world, because most of these commodities are being imported in large quantities and prices are consequently high. There is no doubt about the demand, neither is there any question that people who know how can produce all these commodities with profit to themselves and advantage to the consumer. The wheat areas of the world are becoming exhausted or utilized for other crops. Consumption of wheat is increasing at a greater rate than production, and this era of high prices will continue. This scarcity is Canada's opportunity, and she is quickl/ taking a leading place in the wheat-producing nations of the world. The problem of our agriculture is the problem of supplying bread to the ever- increasing millions of America and Europe, and, while marvellous strides have been made in the facilities for transportation of agricultural prod- ucts, yet the real solution of the problem is bringing the population to the food, rather than the food to the population. The vision that meets us here is one of ample land awaiting man, and of possibilities of agricultural production which can be realized only by increased immigration. Before and above all of what transportation has done, and may yet do to carry agriculture away, the more reasonable prospect is the settle- ment of these wide areas by a population cultivating the soil which this great country has. THE WAY TO LOOK AT IT After you have harvested your crop from land that is worth anywhere from $75 to $200 per acre, and you do not own a great deal of that, not nearly as much as you desire, possibly you are renting a farm, paying the greater part of your hard- earned money to the landlord; or, again, it may be that you are working on a farm with no prospects, or very slim ones at the most, of ever owning a home of your own, in a country where land values are greatly beyond your means of obtaining, it is then you turn your face to some newer place where there is more room for you, where you can get from 500 to 1,000 acres of the finest agricultural land in close proximity to a market, for the price you can sell that 100 acres of yours back home. If you are a renter, it is possible to get a farm of your own, either free, by way of a homestead of 160 acres from the Dominion Government, or to purchase land close to the railway centres at such low prices and long terms, that it is less by far than your rent would be in the old settled districts, where you are at present living, with the further advantage that every little payment you make brings you that much closer to having your own home and farm. In the event of your working on a farm in western Canada, you are able to get very high wages during the summer and harvest months, then put in the winter on your homestead. At the end of three years, when you receive title from the Government, a railway will have been built close to your land, increasing the value so greatly that you will be comparatively independent. A Jersey herd on a Western Canada farm. It will be noticed that there is magnificent natural shelter, market for all dairy products. There is a splendid CANADA WEST 5 A LAND FULL OF PROMISE AND AMPLE REALIZATION Looking the landscape over in the Edmonton district. This is a field of oats cut green for feed. The crop cures in the stock and makes excellent winter feed for horses and cattle at low cost, three tons to the acre being common. CANADA WEST is a mighty re- gion comprising over a million square miles; magnificent plains, great fresh water lakes and broad streams, sheltering groves, tree-fringed water courses, and primeval forests, hills and grassy dales, high- lands', mountains, snow-capped peaks, and park-like valleys. All this is Canada West. The American farmer looking north toward Canada feels the significance to hu- manity and to himself of this vast region, the multitude of fives to which it can bring happiness and success, and the great constructive role it is to play toward a world broken by destructive forces. Thoughts such as these have resulted in dotting the vast stretches of Canada West with homesteads, farms, villages, towns, and cities, have covered broad plains with waving grain, and stretched a network of railways in every direction. Canada West is no longer a great uninhabited expanse. To every district the railroads have brought the conveniences of modern civilization and the means of communication with all parts of the world. To the advantages of a sturdy pioneer life are here added those of the most advanced social com- munities. Modern methods of agriculture mean ease for the farmer of Canada West, his family has every home comfort and social advantage and his children are assured the best of school- ing. And still the area in Canada West is so vast that in the three provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, only eight per cent of the land is being tilled. Thousands of 160-acre free homesteads await the energetic enterprise of the practical home-maker to transform them into wealth-producing lands and bring him independence and success. The conditions governing such occupation are simple and easy. After the filing of a claim and the payment of a ten dollar entrance fee, the only requirement for complete owner- ship is residence on the land for six months each year during three years. There are great level prairies to be obtained in this way which will make ideal grain-growing areas and from which record crops of wheat can be raised with unprecedentedly small expenditure of time, effort, and money. Oats, barley, and flax, can also be raised successfully on these broad plains. Vast tracts of such land in exceedingly desirable portions of these three provinces are yet untenanted. Hundreds of thou- sands of farmers from the United States have filed on these lands and, as has been said, there are hundreds of thousands more available vacant homesteads yet to be filed on. There thej' find certain and rich returns on their investments, and they can look forward to a rosy future, before, so uncertain. Large areas of untenanted lands are adapted to mixed farm- ing. There is abundant water and fodder for the cattle which thrive on the rich grasses. Such cattle as are brought to the boundary for importation by settlers are inspected and any animals exhibiting signs of disease are not permitted to enter the country. The standard of health in this respect is very high and rigidly main- tained to protect the cattle stock of the farmers already in the provinces. Dairying is carried on extensively and with highly successful results, the rich milk testifying to the nu- tritive quality of the abundant grasses on which the cattle feed. Creameries for the manufacture of butter and cheese are numer- ous and prosperous. The same qualities of soil that fatten the large herds of cattle are favourable also to sheep raising, a pursuit which has assumed large proportions in this country. Many of the valleys of British Columbia are particularly well suited to mixed farming and large crops of potatoes and hay as well as wheat and oats are raised. In this province fruits of all kinds, of unusual flavor and excellence, are grown. The Pacific Ocean is a large contributor to the wealth not only of British Columbia but of the great central expanse lying between it and Hudson Bay. Strong air currents carry heat and moisture from the ocean and in many parts influence the winter temperature to such a degree that cattle and horses may pasture out through the entire year. Home building is easy and inexpensive since timber is to be found in large quantities in the forest-lands and timbered stretches throughout the provinces. All these facts point to the wisdom of securing agricultural lands such as these, which will yield larger profits than almost any other in any region. The wide acres of Canada West will amply reward ordinary care in working, and surpass in productiveness, when scientifically treated, much of the valuable land of the United States. Now is the time to choose the best tracts of land. The demand for food stuffs will soon pass all precedents, and Western Canada has been provided by nature with every advantage for supplying the demand. The radiant sunshine, the well distributed rains, the deep fertility of the soil, the ease and rapidity of production, all point to it as the im- portant food producer of the world. The demand from Europe for years to come will be great and insistent. The world must turn to these vast untenanted lands for preservation upon which thousands are yearly taking up residence. Towns and cities spring up, and railroads penetrate in every direction to bear away vast harvests to the world's markets. The scheme of speculators to allow lands to lie idle while wait- ing for an increase in value is no longer tenable. The value of these lands is now in their great productivity, in the actual crops the}' can produce. The call is now for the energy and initiative of the practical farmer, the producer the man who knows how to make the land yield its riches, and to whom the world looks for support. If there is any one fact more than another regarding Canada that has in recent years been heralded abroad, and that has served to attract attention to the Dominion, it is the almost limit- less expanse and the immense fertility of her western prairies. 6 CANADA WEST THE WHEAT CROP OF WESTERN CANADA IN 1915 WAS 350,000,000 BUSHELS THE EFFECT OF THE WAR "A Growth for Canada in the next Thirty Years Greater than that for any Part of the Continent." Extracts from an address by C. W. Barron, of the Wall Street Journal before the Canadian Club of Toronto: "There are only two great unturned arable soils in the world to-day awaiting human occupation. These are in Russia and the upper part of the North American continent. "Now when it comes to the settlement of this war — the settling up and the settling down — you know or ought to know who has the land and where the future settlements will be! You are 7^ of the North American continent in population and you have more than 7% of the rail- road mileage. In respect not only to railroads, but in some political and financial aspects, you are better off than we are in the t inted States. The govern- ment here aids and helps to fi- nance j our transportation. You have a homogeneous govern- ment. You are protected on two sides by the oceans; on the north by nature; and on the south you have no Belgium and no Ger- many. You are protected on the south because no one would think of going through your southern boundary. You are the best protected people in the world! What better situation can you think of, when you ask who is going to get the material benefits in the settlements after the war? What you need is more mineral development, more agricultural development, more transporta- tion, more people; and all these, it seems to me, you will get after the war. "I don't want to swell your pride too much by telling you how tremendous will be the material results to you after this war. We have not in the United States the available arable land that you have. You have pro- portionately more railroads; and so long as a country needs for its prosperity freedom, good position, you are the one people who have the land, with the government, and good transportation, you are in a favoured position, right climate, and transportation, and you are ready to invite the whole world to come in. "In the next generation you will not be 7% of the North American people in population and growth but a far larger part. I see a growth for Canada in the next thirty years greater than for any part of this continent. Indeed, I think you will grow in the next thirty years faster, broader, and greater than any part of this continent ever has grown in any thirty years. "The United States will profit by the lessons of the war in the world-competition. In this the futures of the United St.it* - and Canada lie along the same path. Both have expe- The complete fall operations on every farm rienced the impetus of war business. The physical features of the two countries are the same, with the difference that Canada's resources have scarcely yet been touched." CANADA'S UNDEVELOPED FIELD A Winnipeg paper, with a well-known reputation for con- servatism in economic matters says: "Canada's undeveloped field should prove a mighty factor after the war in adjusting the country's business from one period to another. Agriculture, moreover, must continue to be the basic source of the nation's prosperity. The staggering figures of this year's crop, showing increases in production of 50 per cent over last year, give a slight idea of the future wealth stored in vast stretches of prairie plain yet untouched by the plough. The estimates of the crop for 1915, made during August and September by authoritative people in the West, who are usually right in their calcula- tions, have all been revised to meet the phenomenal returns from the threshers. The Do- minion Government on Septem- ber 13, estimated the western wheat crop at 275,772,200 bushels, but on October 15 those figures were changed to 304,200,000 bushels. At least it would seem now that the wheat crop of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta for the year 1915 would amount to more than 350,000,000 bushels." MONETARY RETURNS FOR THE WESTERN CROP The amount of money which the West is receiving for its grain has not yet been wholly appre- ciated. Up to the 10th December the Canadian West had received some 170 million dollars for 182 million bushels of its grain crop, of which 149 million bushels was wheat. True, the shadow of war is still upon us. But hostilities are six thousand miles away — where we propose to keep them. Inter- nally, the land is at absolute peace. Military efforts have all been voluntary, and conse- quently have not disorganized the ordinary business of the coun- try. Economists tell us when the war is over no country will be in better shape than Canada, because our prosperity is not dependent upon the war, or upon the market for luxuries, but upon our production of food, which Europe must consume, whether at war or at peace. Western Canada is the last great area of cheap, fertile land with democratic government and a white man's climate. When the present upheaval settles down, the rush for such land is sure to be tremendous. The thoughtful settler is the one who foresees events, makes his decision and selects his farm in advance of the multitude. And every settler who brings to Ganada the means necessary to a modest start, combined with enterprise, intelligence, and good citizenship, can look forward with the fullest confidence to prosperity and happiness. CANADA WEST 7 CANADA'S WONDERFUL PROGRESS IT IS OVER THE HILL— SPLENDID BANK CLEARINGS — CROP RETURNS REVEAL VAST POSSIBILITIES FOR FUTURE. "There are opportunities for investment in Canada now that may prove attractive to American capital. Land prices in the West are low and wa^es less than on this side of the line, and whatever the outcome of the war, the future of the Dominion is assured as one of prosperity in the development of its vast resources." — Chicago Tribune. country must suffer a relapse, and straightway return to a state of inactivity and hard times. The grain shipments have been the biggest in the history of Winnipeg and in the history of the twin ports, Fort William and Port Arthur. The mail order houses have had a big year, the rush of fall orders ex- ceeding all previous years and taxing the capacity of these estab- lishments, whose most sanguine expectations have been exceeded by the actual business done. The tide has turned in Western Canada. The people of the West are forging ahead, forging ahead in actual production and in creation of wealth, giving generously to charitable and other funds, paying up their back debts, while going along carefully as regards any creation of new debts. They are economizing but not scrimping, acting cautiously but not miserly. The financial heads of Eastern Canada, of the United States and of Europe are no longer criticizing Western Canada; rather they are un- stintedly offering their praise and their compliments. The financial press recognizes that the tide has turned in Western Canada, and it has been published to the world. The condition of Western Canada at the close of 1915 is one of optimistic prosperity, backed by the same determination of western people to go on increasing their productiveness and maintaining the records which they have already established. The trade revival of Western Canada is the happiest feature in the business survey of the whole Dominion for 1915 and in the outlook for 1916. A SHORT time ago the Canadian Government asked for pri- vate subscriptions to a loan of 50 million dollars. Less than a month was given for completion of the subscription. On November 30th, the day upon which subscriptions were to cease, it was found that 110 millions of dollars had been sub- scribed, or 60 million dollars more than the amount asked. If there were any so pessimistic as to imagine that Canada was passing through a period of hard times the wonderful showing of this subscription should put aside all doubts of Canada's rapidly increasing prosperity. The trade revival in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta is an actuality and not a myth. There is to-day a spirit of opti- mism in the air, just as two years ago there prevailed the oppo- site spirit of pessimism. A general trade revival has been felt in every department of business in the Prairie Provinces. The agriculturists are in better shape than they have ever been before in their lives. No farm- ers of any country are in better financial condition and in a more general state of prosperity than are the farmers of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. The farmers have harvested a record crop — a crop which enriches them to the extent of some- thing nearly $550,000,000. In the cities the prosperity of the country has been reflected. Everywhere business is on the hustle. The wholesalers and the retailers and the implement dealers find business good. The banks and other collection houses find collections satis- factory, and financial men declare that westerners are paying up their debts. In Winnipeg the bank clear- ings have been the largest in history, some weeks exceed- ing the figures of Montrealand Toronto. For 1915, they were a billion and a half of dollars, representing business on a per capita basis or* over §7,000 per head for every man, woman, and child in the city, and have gone ahead of big manufacturing cities like Buffalo, and run a close second to Detroit; it has 6hown bigger bank clearings than the middle west cities of Minneapolis and Duluth, and has exceeded Los Angeles, Seattle, and other noted shipping centres. It is now 6ide by side with the ten biggest cities in North Ameri- ca in amount of bank clearings. But because the war helped Canada recover quickly from a natural economic depres- sion it does not follow that, at the end of the war, the Canada A Self-Governing Country There is no War Tax on Land nor is there any Conscription. Canada is a part of the British Empire. The duties of the government are divided between the Dominion and the provinces. The system is popularly termed " Responsible Government." Every government official is fully and entirely responsible to the people for every administrative act of himself and colleagues. This, more than any other form, places the people inlmore direct and absolute control. The Dominion owns and controls the administration of the public lands in the three Central provinces and throughout Northern Canada. The responsibility for their development rests upon the Dominion Government which therefore assumes the work of promoting immigration. The Dominion Parliament makes and enforces the criminal laws, controls the militia, post office, railways, indirect taxation by the tariff and excise, trade relations with other countries, and, speaking generally, all matters of national concern. The Provinces are governed by legislatures elected by the people. They have "Responsible Government" on the same principles as the Dominion Government. They are charged with providing the civil law and administering both civil and criminal laws. They provide for education and municipal government and for direct taxation in their support, and generally all matters of a purely provincial or local character. Military Service in Canada is Not Compulsory Any contribution to Greit Britain, whether in money or men, is entirely voluntary. There exists, though, such a friendly feeling to the mother country, that as in the case of the European War, voluntary contributions are given with the heartiest good will. It would be possible for Canada to remain entirely neutral, but to do so would not be natural. It, therefore, rests absolutely with oneself whether he care to take up arms. There is no War tax on land. One of the best indications possible, of increased pros- perity financially in a com- munity is the meeting of liabilities, and the clearing off of mortgages, notes, etc. Inquiries made by some of the loan companies indicate that conditions in this respect are of a highly satisfactory nature. . The representative of one large loan company which does a big business covering a large area in the West, states that over 80 per cent of the arrears owing a short time ago had recently come in. Farmers are not only clean- ing up their liabilities so far as the interest is concerned, but they are very keen to pay up their principal, and insist upon it being taken. This is a condition that is to be found all through Western Canada. And why not? With almost every far- mer having a crop of wheat of from 30 to 40 bushels per acre, and realizing from $27.00 to S36.00 per acre in cash, and on land that cost him probably less than half this — why shouldn't he be in comfortable circumstances? 8 CANADA WEST WESTERN CANADA'S 1915 CROP AVERAGES $1500 TO EACH FARMER WHAT THE SOIL WILL PRODUCE THE soil in western Canada is, generally speaking, a black or brown chocolate loam with a clay subsoil, and is con- ceded to be the best cereal producer in the world, and, incidentally, it is quite easily cultivated, as the country for the greater part is open. It will grow successfully anything in the shape of grain, grasses, fruits and roots that can be raised wF in the western part of the Ur$* * United States, with the pos- sible exception of field corn and a few of the more tender varieties of garden truck and CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AN important consideration to those who are not familiar with the country is the question of climate, which has often been much misrepresented. A former Governor- General of Canada, the Marquis of Lome, once said; "The climate has honest heat in summer and honest cold in winter. The sun is seldom hidden, and men see many seasons and are healthy, strong and active." Owing to the dryness of the atmosphere and the amount of sunshine, people do not mind the cold as much as In some of the newer districts of Western Canada are to be found attractive spots for mixed farming. Mixed farming can be carried on with the greatest degree of success, with pleasure and profit. fruits. These latter will, however, very soon be raised in great quantities and with equal results to those obtained in the older settled districts of the east and south. It is but a matter of having the land settled and brought under cultiva- tion, in this way changing climatic conditions by turning over the soil to the sun's rays. The principal and most profitable crop now grown is wheat. The quality of this product of western Canada has been amply demonstrated by the flour milling concerns of Canada, the United States, and, in fact, the world, the better grade of flour being obtained by mixing Canadian No. 1 Hard wheat with the softer grades of other countries. The soil will raise anything up to fifty bushels of wheat per acre, though the average for the three' prairie provinces is not so high as that. Oats are also a very rich crop, heavy yields being the rule. In some districts that are specially adapted for the growing of this cereal, great success is met with. Other very suc- cessful and important crops are flax and barley. Rye and peas also have a very luxuriant growth. Potatoes are very easily grown, as are turnips, mangels, and all field crops of a kindred nature. Fruit growing is receiving some attention in the more thickly settled districts and those giving it their time are reaping a handsome reward. Apples and plums, though not grown extensively, have in many sections of the west matured in season and are of good quality. Raspberries, strawberries, and currants of various varieties are receiving considerable attention, and a great number of farmers are growing them for the market, which in this case, as in most all other lines, is much greater than the supply, thus always assuring good prices. The productiveness of the soil, and the easy terms upon which land may be acquired from the government, or purchased, guarantee the success of the man who is willing to work and take advantage of the possibilities that Western Canada affords. Hon. Dr. Roche has given official denial to the statement that there is conscription in Canada or likely to be. None but Canadian citizens could possibly be included, and it takes three years' residence to become such. Neither is there any War Tax on land. There is no tax of any kind on stock, chattels or improvements on farms. the readings of the thermometer might lead the inexperienced to believe. Ordinary, healthy people enjoy it, but in winter they wear good warm clothing out of doors. The climate of parts of Alberta, even far north of Peace River valley, is much modified by the chinook winds, which, tempered by the warm Japanese current of the north Pacific, blow through the passes of the Rocky Mountains and sometimes, even in mid-winter, make the climate extremely mild. In an ordinary season, horses and cattle thrive on the open ranges all winter, though provident farmers keep a supply of hay on hand for all emergencies. Considered broadly, the summers of the Canadian West are characterized by high day temperatures and an abundance of sunshine, the winters by clear, cold weather. Usually spring advances very rapidly, for though the mean temperature during April and May may be in the neighbourhood of 35°, the daily maximum would be at least 10° to 12° higher. The annual precipitation over the whole area is comparatively fight, but is somewhat greater for the first than for the second and third prairie levels. In a general way, the rainfall becomes lighter as we proceed westward. The greater part of the rain over the district, however, falls' during the growing season, and hence is particularly effective agriculturally. The distribution has been found one that, for the most part, is well adapted to the production of the finest quality of wheat. In considering the climate of the Canadian prairies, the fact should not be lost sight of that, although the total annual precipitation averages only 13.35 inches for the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta and 17.34 inches for Manitoba, the amount falling between April 1 and October 1 ia respectively 9.39 inches and 12.87 inches, or 70.3 and 74.2 per cent of the whole. The average, 12.87 inches, in Manitoba is not far short of the average for Ontario during the same six months. CANADA WEST 9 SUCCESS ACHIEVED BY VARIOUS METHODS THE new man is not looked upon as an intruder but as a produeer of new wealth, an enricherof the commonwealth. The new man should buy his tools as he needs them. Until he has more than thirty acres under crop he can work with a neighbour, in exchange for the services of a binder. A cow is a good investment, and a vegetable garden easily pays its own way. The Man Who Has Less Than $300.— Had better work for wages for the first year. He can hire out to established farmers and thereby gain a knowledge of agricultural methods. The Man Who Has $600.— Get hold of your 160-acre free homestead at once, build your shack, and proceed with your homestead duties. During the six months that you are free to absent yourself from your homestead, hire out to some successful farmer and get enough to tide you over the other half of the year which you must spend in residence upon the land. When you have put in six months' residence during each of these years and have complied with the improvement conditions required by the Land Act, you become the absolute owner. The Man Who Has 51,000. — Either homestead a farm or purchase one on the installment plan, and get to work at once. A small house and out-buildings will be required, with horses or oxen, a plough, a wagon, etc. Working out in the harvest season will be necessary to bring in money to tide over the winter T. Lewis, of Chas. Lewis & Co., Minneapolis, one of the largest grain brokerage firms in the United States says: "It looks to me as if Canada was in for a big boom." 4 milch cows at $65. . . 260.00 4 hogs at $15 60.00 4 sheep at $8 32.00 poultry 10.00 miscellaneous tools. . 20.00 100 bushels oats at 40 cts. 40.00 10 bu.seedpotatoesat$l 10.00 seed wheat and oats 100.00 unforeseen items. . . . 60.00 Total $1,500.00 and get the crop sown in good condition. As the crop grows, opportunity is given to make the house comfortable, to look around and plan ahead. What $1,500 Will Buy. — No farmer should come expecting to make a homestead pay its own way the first year. He needs buildings, an equipment, and money for the maintenance of himself and family until his first harvest can be garnered. After securing his land and putting up his buildings, $1,500 w ill give him a fairly good equipment to begin with. This will probably be expended as follows: 3 good horses $475.00 1J4 set harness 45.00 1 combination plough.. . . 30.00 1 disc harrow 36.00 1 drag harrow 18.00 1 seeder ." . . . 90 00 1 mower 65.00 1 rake 30 00 1 strong wagon 94.00 1 set sleighs 25.00 If the settler locates early in the season he may get in a crop of potatoes or oats in May or early June. Will a Quarter-Section Pay?— "Will the tilling of a quarter of a section (160 acres) pay?" when asked of those who have tried it provokes the invariable an- swer that "It will and does pay." "We, or those follow- ing us, will make less than that pay, " said one who had proved up on a homestead. Another pointed to the fact that many of those who commenced on homesteads are now owners of other quarters — and even larg- er areas, showing that they have progressed in obtaining more land, while others still have stuck to the homestead quarter-section. Shall You Buy, Rent or Homestead?— The question is one that Canadian Government officials are frequently asked, especially in the homes of a family of boys who have become interested in western Canada. If the young man has grit and inexperience let him homestead. Treating this subject in a newspaper article, a correspondent very tersely says, "He will survive the ordeal and gain his experience at less cost." Another has ample knowledge of farming practice, experience in farm management, but lacks pluck and staying power and the capacity to endure. The food for thought and opportunity for action provided by the management of an improved farm would be just the stimulus required to make him settle into harness and work out his own salvation. Many men make excellent, progressive, broad-gauge farmers by renting or buying an improved farm in a settled district and keeping in touch with more advanced thought and methods. Every Young Man Wants a Farm For Himself. There is an unprecedented demand for farm labour in Western Canada. Wages from $30 to $40 a month, with board and lodging during spring, summer and fall seasons. A young man's earnings and experience should in two years establish him on a homestead, thereby soon becoming one of Canada's prosperous and contented settlers. Let the boy take the route that appeals to him. Don't force him to homestead if he pines to rent. Don't try to keep him at home if homesteading looks good to him. The thing to remember is that success may be achieved by any one of the three routes. If the foundation is all right, hard work the method, and thoroughness the motto, it makes little difference what road is taken — whether homesteading, buying, or renting — western Canada is big enough, and good farming profitable enough. ■ It is not only in cereals that the Western Provinces of Canada make such a wonderful showing, but the possibilities in other ways are great. The success of the vegetable crops has awak- ened a new interest in the possibilities of canning vegetables for export, and it is not unlikely that future years will see some of the largest vegetable canneries on the continent located in the prairie provinces. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta are contributing largely to the dressed meat exports of the Dominion, the packing plants of the prairie provinces are fast becoming of remarkable importance in Canada. Efforts have been made to impress upon the agriculturists of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta the importance of increasing the dairy output, so that there will be sufficient production to permit of export. They can do the producing in such quan- tities as would permit of enor- mous exports of butter and cheese, and unlimited markets arc available all over the world. These horses have never been stabled NO PASSPORT is re- quired on entering or leav- ing Canada. Every fa- cility is accorded desir- able settlers to secure best information as to location of homesteads. 14 CANADA WEST Authentic Reports From All Parts TO THE average Araercan farmer, the reports of forty, fifty and sixty bushels to the acre wheat crops are almost incredible. The names and addresses of many Western Canadian farmers who have harvested these yields are given. To those who cannot believe these reports, it is suggested that they communicate direct with any of the farmers in Canada, and get further convincing proof that Western Canada is the prize grain belt of the world— championship holder of both quality and quantity records. Wheat Over Six Feet High. — M. N. Cadwell, of Windom, Cottonwood County. Minnesota, in a letter published in the Windom Reporter says: "In western Saskatchewan we found the oat harvest about done, and a wheat crop ready for harvest that made a good yield of from 25 to 65 bushels per acre. Some wheat that was sown on stubble, nothing done only sown with a drill, made a yield of from 25 to 35 bushels per acre. Oats the same, 50 bushels per acre. I drove the binder twelve days. Some of the wheat was very thick and stood over six feet high." Bin Yields Ila\e Made Him Independent.— Wm. H. Simpson of Minburn, Alberta, started on a homestead seven years ago bringing $1,000 worth of settlers' effects. To-day he has 527 acres of land worth $25 to S30 per acre and good buildings. The land, stock and cash would be worth around $20,000 to $1,000 seven years ago, and the most crop he had in any one year was 150 acres. He always worked his land well and got well paid for it. Started with Nothing Now Clears S3, 000 Annually. — F. D. Yager of Kenaston, Sask., states: "I came to this country in the spring, 1906, from Chicago, with practically nothing. I took up a homestead which I proved up and then bought three quarter-sections which I am now farming. It is all under cultivation and I clear about $2,000 every year. I have put about $3,500 worth of improvements on the land in the shape of buildings and have one of the finest homes in the northwest. My land has doubled in value in the last six years but it is not for sale. The climate in this part of Canada I think is the healthiest in the world, and the winters getting milder every year." An ex-Pennsylvanian Wants More Neighbours. — Writing in April, 1915, (before he threshed his bountiful crop in the fall) wrote: "I have proved up on one quarter and have eighty acres ready for crop and have four good horses, and if I get a good crop this year will be out of debt. Where could you go to do that in four years, starting without any money? "I was raised in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the garden spot of that State, and this has just as good a chance to be as good. All we need is a lot more farmers." Charles E. Reel, of Youngstown, Alta. 11(14 Wheal Averaged 59 Bushels and in 1915 Went 45 to the Acre. — W. Mcllvide & Sons of Rumsey, Alberta, in a letter dated December 14, 1915, says: "In 1914 we had 59 bushels of wheat to the acre, and 87 bushels of oats. In 1915 our wheat went 45 bushels to the acre, and oats went a little over 90 bushels, just drilled in on stubble and harrowed once. This was on the same. land that the wheat was raised on in 1914. In 1913 the wheat went 43 bushels to the acre. "We came here with one team of oxen, one team of horses, and machinery. At that time we had six head of cattle, now we have 52 head of horses and 48 head of cattle besides what we have sold each year. We had 350 acres in crop this year, and have 580 acres ready for crop next year. "We value our holdings at $50,000. This has all been made right on the land. Our wheat graded for 1913 to 1915 No. 1." Never Had a Crop Failure.— August Pearson of Rumsey, Alberta, has every reason to feel satisfied he moved to Western Canada. He says: "I homesteaded here in 1909 and had nothing at all. Now I have a well improved place, mostly broken up, and 11 head of horses. I am worth about $8,000. .Since I came here I have not had a crop failure, and if this land is farmed right a person is practically sure of a good crop every year. In 1913 my wheat went 35 bushels per acre, in 1914 it went 43 bushels, and in 1915, 44 bushels. My oats also went 75 bushels to the acre." Wheat Averaged 47 Bushels to the Acre.— A neighbour of Pearson's writes as follows: "I came in hen; in 1903 and took a homestead and have bought three quarters of land since then. I have been raising stock and found this an A. 1 stock country. The last six years I have been growing grain as well. I never had a crop failure, wheat has averaged 30 bushels per acre and oats 80 bushels during this time. In 1915 my wheat went 47 bushels and In 1914 a little over 30 bushels." Started Farming with $32. — Ole Stensrud of Weldon, Sask., has proved that by working and saving a man can start farming with a small capital. He writes: "After filing on my homestead I had $32 cash. I now have a half-section of land with 100 acres broken, 28 head cattle, 27 sheep, 9 horses 14 hogs, implements enough to do my work, and am on a fair financial standing." Wants Others to Reap Profits. — Valdemar Mortenson and his brothers went to Western Canada in 1908, worked out as hired hands, and eventually homesteaded at Delia, Alberta. Mr. Mortenson says: "We have 245 acres under cultivation — all splendid wheat land — and are increasing the cultivated area each year. We have 30 head of horses, full equipment of implements and machinery, and do not owe a cent to anybody. We had a surplus of about $1,000 last year and have nearly all of the 1914 crop of wheat and oats in our granary yet; worth from $2,500 to $3,000. We have not speculated in anything, but earned our start by our own labour. Had we embraced the very great opportunities our district affords for making money through cattle and hog raising, we could have made a good many thousand dollars in the 6 MS years we have been here with very little additional effort, but as things are we have reason to be satisfied. "When I look back over the narrow span of 6J-3 years which it has taken to gain a comparative independence here, I realize that if the great opportunities of this West of ours were more widely known, many would seek homes here which they can never hope to gain elsewhere. Many people who came here five or six years ago, with no other capital than their ability and willingness to work, own their own homes and farms to-day, but those who had some money have generally done better in proportion." 64}^ Bushels of Wheat to the Acre. — L. P. Zaczkowski of Spring Lake, Alberta, got 643^ bushels of wheat per acre from 12 measured acres. His land was manured and summer-fallowed, ploughing six inches deep. It was harrow- ed over four times, seeded on the 6th of April, two and a half bushels per acre. Had 93 Bushels of Oats to the Acre. — "In 1915 I sowed 43 acres of wheat from which I got 1,200 bushels of wheat, which is 27 bushels and 39 pounds from an acre. Had 17 acres of oats but threshed only 8 acres, from which I got 650 bushels, an average of 93 bushels to the acre. Ten acres I stacked for green feed. Jacob Goetz, (formerly of South Dakota) now of Piapot, Sask." Wheat 40 to 55 bushels to the acre. — A former American, now a resi- dent of Golden Prairie, Sask , says: "This year the crops were immense. In our locality wheat went from 40 to 55 bushels per acre, oats about 80 bushels on an average. We had about 100 bushels of potatoes on about a quarter-acre of ground. Gardens were fine all over. I picked out 12 potatoes that weighed 30 pounds and this potato patch was cultivated only once. Last winter I turned the horses out to rustle their living and they were in fine shape in the spring. But I had a fine patch of corn this year and some corn-fattened hogs too. There are schools in almost every district now. When I first came up here on almost every half-section stood a little 12x14 shack, now almost everyone has real modern houses and barns. Since I have been here there has been no snow to slay until after Christmas. Horace Blake." Large Yields Common in All Parts.— While on his recent visit to Travels, Alberta, Canada, Robert Mathews obtained the following statements from farmers in the Travers district of the yield of their crop for the past season: I. H. Hooker, 82 acres wheat, 3,820 bu., 64 lbs. per bu. 1. I. Lee, 40 acres wheat stubble, 1,500 bu.; 40 acres wheat, summer fallow, 2,530 bu. of wheat. Peter Brandon, 164 acres wheat, 7,361 bu. R. Marandi, 135 acres wheat, 6,920 bu. Ole. Chrestoferson, 50 acres wheat, 2,647 bu. Anifhus Gavett, 155 acres wheat, 6,642 bu.; 30 acres oats, 2,000 bu. Robert Mathews. 46 acres wheat, 2,016 bu., machine measure. A. H. Dahl, 50 acres wheat, 1,850 bu D. Dunbar, 130 acres wheat, 5,925 bu. Inguald Hoppy, 80 acres wheat, 2,800 bu., all stubble. Louis Kragt, 80 acres wheat, 4,000 bu. W. J. Pate, 26 acres wheat, 980 bu. W. Roeniche, 15 acres wheat, 5,337 bu., 80 of this stubble. . J. C. McKinnon, 50 acres wheat, 2,536 bu. Gordon Swinehart, 30 acres wheat, 1,140 bu. Allien Hanson, 85 acres u heat, 3.760 bu. Elmer Hamm, HO acres wheat, 5,158 bu.; 90 acres oats, 6,550 bu. John Larson, 80 acres wheat, 3,000 bu.; 30 acres oats, 2,000 bu. John Hecklin, 37 acres wheat, 1,484 bu. Wm. Hecklin, 100 acres wheat. 3,376 bu., stubble and breaking. O. Salisbury, 50 acres wheat, 1,600 bu. on breaking. The above statements here made in my presence this 9th day of December, 1915 — (Seal) O. Salisbury, Notary Public. CANADA WEST 15 A Farm Home is easily beautified by trees and shrubs MANITOBA AVERAGE YIELDS — Wheat, 26.3 Bushels; Oats, 47.7 Bushels. A PROVINCE OF MUCH AGRICULTURAL STABILITY AND PROSPERITY THE total wheat production of Manitoba in 1915 was 97 million bushels, from 3,660,930 acres, or an average yield of 26.3 bushels. The total yield of 1914 was 51,947,608 bushels. Wheat yields averaging 40 bushels per acre for whole districts were common. Yields of 30 and 35 bushels per acre for a district were reported from every section of the province. Individual yields of summer-fallow, potato land or breaking yielded 60 to 70 bushels per acre. Oats in several districts are said to have averaged 80 to 100 bushels per acre. The total oats crop for 1915 was 101 million bushels and the average per acre 47.7 bushels. The total barley crop was 35,281,095 bushels with an average yield of 34 bushels per acre. SOME OF THE INDIVIDUAL YIELDS Gladstone. — Wheat in this district averaged all the way from 25 to 50 bushels an acre, some running over 50. One field of new land is reported tc have produced 70 bushels of wheat per acre and many entire quarter-sections averaged 40 bushels. Fields averaging 50 bushels were not exceptional. Fortler. — A farm here, which had been allowed to run down and get into an unprofitable condition, passed into the hands of a new owner who worked it on careful, scientific principles this year and had an average wheat crop on the entire farm of 56 bushels an acre — one small field averaged 72. Emerson. — Fifty-six and a half bushels to the acre was the average wheat crop realized from a field on a farm here. Winnipeg. — A field of Marquis wheat on the farm of the Manitoba Agri- cultural College gave a yield of 63 bushels per acre. Morris. — A 10-acre field of wheat at Morris, Manitoba, produced 630 bushels, while an oat field at the same place yielded 123 bushels per acre. Brandon. — Numerous reports of 50 bushels of wheat per acre are to hand, and some even higher are heard of. Dauphin. — Four and one-fourth acres of wheat two miles from this town, yielded 326 bushels of wheat, an average of 76.7 bushels per acre. Manitou.— G. E. Davidson had 36 acres of breaking and 14 acres older land. He got 2,186 bushels of wheat, over 43 bushels per acre. Wm. Sharp, formerly Member of Parliament for Lisgar, Manitoba, had 80 acres of wheat on his farm near Manitou, Manitoba, that went 53 bushels. One of the most remarkable yields in this old settled portion of Manitoba was that of P. Scharf of Manitou, who threshed from 15 acres the phenomenal yield of 73 bushels per acre. Darlingford.— Walter Tichnor had 3,514 bushels off a 60-acre field, or over 58 l A bushels per acre. Forty acres was breaking and 20 acres fallow. Bowsman. — G. Smith had 55 bushels per acre of oats from 109 acres. Beulah.— W. Saward, 38 bushels wheat from 167 acres and 70 bushels oats from an 80 acre field. Bridge Creek. — E. W. Nicholson got 40 bushels wheat per acre from 380 acres. Neepawa. — S. Benton. 30 acres average wheat from 310 acres and his oats went 66 bushels per acre. Grandview. — J. Brothers' wheat went 35 bushels per acre from a 75-acre field. Brunkild. — J. Epler's wheat went 31 bushels per acre, his oats 50. W. Coersch had 16 bushels per acre from 80 acres wheat. W. Kabitenzig had 35 bushels from 300 acres wheat; his oats went 45 bushels per acre. Dunrea. — K. Dunlop had 36 bushels wheat per acre from 135 acres, and 40 bushels of oats as an average from 75 acres. Sperling. — J. Grundler's wheat went 52 bushels per acre from an 80 acre field, and his oats went 97 bushels per acre. J. L. Hamilton had 86 acres of wheat that yielded well, while his oats averaged 45 bushels. Shellmouth. — J. L. Bryant's 15 acres of wheat averaged 50 bushels. R. W. Patterson's average on 175 acres was 30 bushels; his oats went 52 bushels. Kennville.— W. Loat had 203 acres of wheat that averaged 43.50 bushels per acre. His oats went 65 bushels. Assissippi. — F. G. Richardson's average of wheat on 150 acres was 40 bushels per acre. Gilbert Plains. — F. Morris had 232 acres of wheat, average 36 bushels; oats, 110 acres, average 50 bushels. J. Gordon's wheat averaged 40 bushels on 65 acres, and his oats 55 bushels on 90 acres. Gregg. — Foster Olmsted had 45 bushels of wheat per acre; G. A. Edwards, 40 and A. McFarlane, 40. FROM ONE YEAR'S CROP HE PAID FOR HIS LAND IN WESTERN CANADA An Illinois farmer owned a large quantity of land near Culross, Manitoba. He decided to put one thousand acres of it under wheat. His own story written to Mr. C. J. Broughton, Canadian Government Agent at Chicago is interesting. "I had 1,000 acres in wheat near Culross, Manitoba. I threshed 34,000 bushels, being an average of 34 bushels to the acre. Last spring I sold my foreman, Mr. F. L. Hill, 240 acres of land for $9,000 or $37.50 per acre. He had saved up about $1,000 which he could buy seed with, and have the land harrowed, drilled and harvested, and put in stock or shock. "As a first payment I was to take all the crops raised. When he threshed he had 8,300 bushels of wheat, which is worth in all $1.00 per bushel, thereby paying for all the land that was in wheat and more too, there being only 200 acres in crop. If the 240 acres had all been in wheat he could have paid for it all and had money left." That is a story that will need no corroboration in this year when no matter which way you turn, you learn of farmers who had even higher yields than these. An Eastern Capitalist looking over his investments in Western Canada. He has here a field of wheat of 40oacres that gave him a yield of upwards of 6o bushels per acre in 1915. 16 CANADA. WEST MANITOBA ENJOYS PROSPERITY BROUGHT ABOUT BY RICHNESS OF ITS SOIL GRAIN* growing is and will probably remain the most important feature in this prov- ince and more especially in the Red River valley proper. However, recent years have wit* nessod a change. More and more stock is being kept and the tendency is, undoubtedly, largely towards smaller holdings, that is, diversified farm- ing. Dairying and the production of beef, mutton and pork are already prosecuted with profit in many sections. Grass, roots and all classes of forage crops can be grown successfully. Of the cereals w heat is the staple, but oats, barley and Max are also largely grown. Climate. — Manitoba's climatic conditions are uniform throughout. There is much sunshine the year round. The summer is pleasant, warm, and conducive to rapid and successful growth. The long autumns are usually agreeable, ploughing weather sometimes extending to the end of November. The winters rarely last more than three or four months, and because of the dry atmosphere, the low temperature is not as much felt as in countries with more moisture. The precipitation at Minnedosa is 17.62 while that at Winnipeg it is 21.88. This may be said to be normal. . The crop season in Manitoba extends from April to October, inclusive. Seeding frequently starts early in April, and threshing usually lasts through October. The mean temperature for the period, April 1 to September 30, in 1914 was 55 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean temperature in October was only 34.40 Fahrenheit, but threshing can be done in cold weather as readily as in warm, with no injurious effects. The total precipitation in the province was smaller than usual — for the growing season 9.67 inches, but rain was well dis- tributed: May 1.04 inches; June 2.34 inches; July 1.70 inches; August 3.56 inches, and September .68 inch. The average sunshine was 7.3 hours daily. The mean temperature of the country is 32.7; January 5.2; July 66.1. Available Homesteads.— There are about two million acres open for free homesteading in the old portion of the province, where there is ample tree growth to provide fuel and timber for a long time to come. With conditions such as these, and with a grain crop that has brought to every man, woman and child in the province upwards of 350 dollars, with land that can be purchased from large land companies and from the railway com- panies at remarkably low figures, some of them improved and others raw prairie, any of them easily worth double, what more reasonable or pleasurable existence could be imagined than life on one of these Manitoba farms. And then, if you wish you may take advantage of the homesteading act which gives you the privilege of taking up 160 acres of land as a free gift from the Government, the only payment being the ten dollars entry fee. Fuel. — There is an ample supply of wood along most of the rivers and in the hills to the north, the wooded area to the east and also in the hills throughout Southern Manitoba. Coal is not expensive. Many farm homes that a few years ago were surrounded by but the open prairie have become beautified by the planting of rows of trees and shrubs. Supplies of trees may be had from the Government without any expense to the applicant. Investment in Manitoba Farms. — Some idea of the growth of the province may be obtained from the fact that the farms of Manitoba are worth today approximately, $600,000,000. In 1911 they were worth $463,000,000. Of the present six hundred millions the value of the farm lands now occupied in the province is estimated at $425,000,000, w hich is an increase of about $125,000,000 over 1911. The farm buildings in the province total a value of $100,000,000, w hile agricultural imple- ments in use in the province total a value of about $35,000,000. The value of live stock is placed at about $75,000,000. Land Area in Manitoba.— The land area of Manitoba Is about 250,000 square miles, which is enough to give a square mile of land to 250,000 settlers, or sufficient to give a quarter-section to three times that number. Government estimates place the arable land still available in Manitoba at 74,216,000 acres, which is sufficient to give quarter-sections to 463,825 new settlers. With land still available In 100-acre parcels for over 463,000 agricultural settlers, It is possible to Increase the total population of the province by nearly two million people without crowding and to Increase the agricultural production of the province several hundred per cent. Koot and Fodder Crops are of considerable value to the Manitoba farmers. They grow in splendid abundance. Every farmer can have a good supply for winter's feed. This picture was specially posed to show the height of the oats. It is needless to say that the yield in this field was exceedingly large. recovery in many cases. Harvest labour becomes a pleasure when the yield is a 40 bushel to the acre wheat crop. Pasture Grasses. — The wild or native grass of Manitoba contains all the properties for fattening cattle, but it is found that on lands that are becoming more expensive all the time, it is best to provide cultivated fodders. The experimental stage is passed, and it can safely be said that all kinds of tame grasses can be grown successfully. Alfalfa yields abundantly. The same methods of seeding and preparation are followed as in the older alfalfa districts of the south. While the same number of cuttings cannot always be relied upon, as in some of the southern countries, where irriga- tion is used, an excellent tonnage is always secured. * Corn Can Be Grown. — Manitoba is now pro- ducing considerable corn, chiefly for feeding purposes. In some cases where the crop can be matured into the dough stage, silos could be used, and would be a profitable investment. A report of the Department of Agriculture for 1915 says: " It is unfortunate that the corn crop this year must be reported a partial failure. The late spring frost in June and the early fall frost in August were sufficiently severe to cut back the crop beyond The seriousness of this situation can be appreciated when it is noted that the area planted to corn had increased from 30,430 acres in 1914 to 52,713 acres in 1915. While the condition this year cannot fail to create a disappointment among some farmers regarding corn, this crop is so firmly established in many of the older districts that it will continue to increase in popularity." In connection with fodder crops comes in the question of: Dairying. — It was not until the past few years that the attention was given to this that the success to which it has now attained warranted it should have had. The time of the farmer was entirely given to grain raising, and no matter how rich a soil may be, a constant drainage of the constituents must sooner or later tell. The farmers of Manitoba today do not dwell upon the results of their grain crops. They have gone into cattle raising very extensively, and there are to be found some of the best herds of the important breeds on the continent. These are both beef and dairy. There are creameries established in different parts of the province. Manitoba produced during 1915 about 10,000,000 pounds of butter, which had a value of $2,648,000. The cheese production in this province for 1915 totalled about 726,725 pounds, valued at about $109,000. This shows an increase of about 234,000 pounds over 1910, the cheese production of that year being valued at $33,364. The total cheese, butter and milk and cream production of the province was worth $3,845,000. Hogs. — The cost of raising pork in Manitoba is probably less than in any other portion of the continent. There is a splendid market for all that can be produced. The principal feed for finishing is barley, which by many is con- sidered to be equally as good as corn. Cattle. — The demand for cattle for years will be great, and there is no better place to go into the business of raising cattle than in the Province of Manitoba. They require no more care on the reasonably-priced lands of this country than they do on the higher-priced lands of the south. They graze out from the 1st of April until the middle of November, and during the winter months are housed at night only. All breeds do well, and a choice is only according to the notion of the breeder's fancy. Poultry. — One of the largest poultry yards in the Dominion, in fact the largest north of Chicago, is near Winnipeg. It has been a paying proposition from the start. Every farmer keeps his flocks of turkeys, geese and chickens; or, should we have said nearly every farmer's wife, for it seems to have fallen to the lot of the farmer's wife, for here, as in almost every farming district, it seems to have fallen to her lot to look after this very profitable part of the farmers' industries. It gives her pleasure and affords her profit. Fruit. — All the smaller fruits, such as straw- berries, raspberries, gooseberries, and currants can be grown successfully, and with a better flavour and in larger quantities than in most other places. They also grow wild in great abundance. Crabapples can be grown almost anywhere. The larger varieties of apples are grown, and excellent yields are reported from points in Southern Maiutoba. Commercially, it is not thought it will pay as they require time and attention that would be more profitably employed in other pursuits. CANADA WEST 17 MANITOBA'S SOCIAL CONDITIONS MAKE FARM LIFE ENJOYABLE The Social Conditions. The representative of the Dominion Govern- ment, whose work is to seek settlers for these newer portions of the great Dominion, is never so pleased as when he meets a prospective settler who asks about the social conditions. That means he is talking to a prospect who has wife and family and whose interest in life is beyond that of a mere existence. Manitoba to this man can offer all that he may require. There are schools for the children, graduated into those for higher education for maturer years, until it comes to the very highest branches of education. A large portion of the expense of these schools is paid out of a public fund, established from the interest of the money received from the sale of school lands. These school lands comprise one- eighteenth of all the land In the country. Ladies' colleges for the finishing educa- tion of the daughters are provided. There are churches of all denominations. Both Dominion and Provincial Govern- ments have made ample provision for the education of the farmer, in the establish- ment of an experimental farm at Brandon and the splendid Agricultural College at Winnipeg. The best talent available is employed, and the opportunities afforded of obtaining a more thorough education in agronomy are amongst the best possible. In the matter of educational facilities the new settler need have no fear that in Mani- toba his children will be deprived of educa- tional advantages; on the contrary, he will find the schools of Manitoba thoroughly up-to-date in equipment, the teachers com- petent and the courses carefully selected and supervised. GREAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG MEN Western Canada requires a large number of young men for employment on farms, and no able-bodied young man, understanding ordinary farm work, need hunt for a position, as steady work may be easily obtained at $30 to $35 per month, with board and lodging, during the spring, summer and fall seasons. This is an opportunity to earn money while looking around for a free homestead of 160 acres, which you can secure upon the payment of a ten dollar entry fee, and at the same time become acquainted with farming conditions as they are in Western Canada, and ultimately have a home of your own surrounded by all agricultural and social advantages. The extent to which agri- cultural instruction alongali lines has been developed un- der the direct supervision of the Government is one of the agreeable surprises that await the newcomer. The Government is constantly on the alert to help the farmer in practical ways that mean dollars to him. In many parts of the province there is rural mail delivery which, added to Results Calculated to Water-Free Basis the telephone system, places the farmer day by day and hour by hour in the closest touch with his neighbour and the outside markets of the world. Graded roads are to be found in all parts where the native or prairie road fails to give satisfaction. Streams are often bridged with steel structures. Markets are convenient and there is probably no state in the Union where the farmer is so well served by the railways. Very few farmers, as one may see by a glance at the map, are more than ten to fifteen miles from a railway. Elevators are at every station, and in addition there are loading platforms, which may be used by the farmer w ho wishes to load his grain direct to the car, and avoid the elevator charges. With the exceptionally good roads, be- fore spoken of, the farmer w ho wishes to use an automobile, w ill find this one of the added pleasures to his farm life in Mani- toba. The sales made in the province dur- ing 1915 were exceptionally large, and the greatest number was made to farmers. The Soil. — Speaking of the soil of Mani- toba, Dr. Geo. M. Dawson, the eminent geologist wrote some years ago: "Of the alluvial prairie, the uniform fer- tility of its soil cannot be exaggerated. The surface, for a depth of two to four feet, is a dark mould, composed of the same material as the subsoil, but mingled with much vegetable matter. Its dark colour is no doubt due in part to the general accumu- lation of the charred grasses left by the prairie fires. The soil may be said to be ready for the plough, and, in turning the tough, thick prairie sod, the first year a crop of potatoes may be put in, though it is not sufficiently broken Locality Morris, Man Portage la Prairie j Portage la Prairie [Brandon Brandon I Dauphin, Man . jValley River, Man ; Valley River, Man Character of Soil Virgin prairie soil— black, heavy clay loam Virgin prairie soil — black, sandy loam . . Prairie soil, cropped 25 years Prairie soil, black loam, rather sandy Prairie soil, black loam, rather sandy Black sandy loam Black sandy loam Black sandy loam 3 % 26 29 19.43 14 79 11.27 12 05 11.44 21.54 13 11 % 1.005 .651 .506 .346 .431 .363 .662 .379 % 1 033 .658 .588 .819 .841 .687 .144 1!<4 % 1.8 1.05 1 61 1.14 1.02 1.89 10 57 3 54 Available Constitu- ents % .054 .038 .033 .029 J 7 .023 .007 .007 % 076 .056 .048 .057 .076 01- 01 007 .5-1 .529 .776 .572 .462 1.121 1.346 949 up till it has been subjected to a winter's frost. When the sod has rotted, the soil appears as a light, friable mould, easily worked and most favourable for agricul- ture. The marly alluvium underlying the vegetable mould would, in most coun- tries, be considered a soil of the best quality, and the fertility of the ground may, therefore, be considered as practically inexhaustible." 22 CANADA WEST CANADA'S GREATEST GRAIN GROWING PROVINCE A GRATIFYING feature of Saskatchewan's farm crop of 1915 was the general average yield of wheat over the whole Province, excepting probably the district north of Moose Jaw to the Saskatchewan River, where yields of upwards of sixty bushels per acre are reported. There was a universally heavy yield of oats in all districts, some going over 100 bushels to the acre, while that of barley was equally good. The prices were such that many fanners realized sufficient to pay for their farms out of the acre crop, and felt justified in purchasing land for further operations. WHEAT.— Acreage, 6,884,874 acres; average yield, 25.2 bushels; total yield, 173,723,775 bushels. OATS.— Acreage, 2,846,949 acres; average yield, 45.9 bushels; total yield, 130,910,048 bushels. BARLEY.— Acreage, 272,299 acres; average yield, 33.2 bushels; total yield, 9,043,813 bushels. FLAX.— Acreage, 539,674 acres; average yield, 11.2 bushels; total yield, 6,060,499 bushels. Moose Jaw.— A farmer of this district, who had already harvested 25,000 bushels, completed early in November the threshing of 320 acres of wheat which gave an average of 54 bushels per acre. lyorkwood. — Mr. \V. D. Scott, Superintendent of Immigration, on his farm near this place, had a yield of 45 bushels per acre, on a 23-acre field. His entire crop of over 200 acres gave a yield of 35 bushels per acre. Yield of oats was 58 bushels per acre. Scott. — Reports from Scott Experimental station are that best crops in that district yielded from 45 to 50 bushels of wheat per acre, with few fields yielding below 30 bushels. Oats yielded well, but barley gave only medium returns. At the Station, one field of wheat yielded over 52 bushels per acre, while other fields averaged well. Swirt Current.— From estimates made by farmers the average wheat crop of the Swift Current district will range from 25 to 30 bushels per acre. Some localities claim averages of 35 bushels and higher. Kindersley. — Ten acres of wheat land carefully meas- ured out on an 10,000 acre farm here yielded 54.10 bushels or a fraction over 54 bushels to the acre. Saskatoon. — The yields produced this year on the University Farm at Saskatoon, while not phenomenal, are a very good index of what can be accom- plished by proper farming methods without any exceptionally favorable con- ditions. Wheat on the farm has yielded this year 47 bushels per acre on land which was sown to corn last season. The lowest wheat yield recorded on breaking is 23 bushels, and the highest 37 bushels per acre; the lowest wheat yield on land that was "stubbled-in" is 17 bushels, and the highest 46 bushels per acre; the lowest yield of oats on summer fallow is 77 bushels, and the highest 94 bushels per acre; the lowest yield of barley on summer fallow is 38 bushels, and the highest 51 bushels, while the lowest yield of peas on summer fallow is 40 bushels. The Dominion Lands agent at this place says that from 107 different threshing outfits which form as many different points in the province the yield of wheat was 53 bushels per acre. Water, grass and some shelter are requisite on a farm where cattle-raising is carried on, and there is plenty in Western Canada CANADA WEST 2 3 SOME OF WESTERN CANADA'S FARM HOMES Marklnrh. — The crops in this district have been completely threshed and about 70 percent have been marketed, including as a total 390,000 bushels, leaving about 200,000 remaining in the granaries. Two hundred and ten cars of wheat, one car of barley, three of oats and two of flax is the total number of cars shipped from here since September 1. Shaunavon. — No w heatfield of this district has been recorded as averaging less than 35 bushels to the acre while the majority run 40 to 47 and a very large percentage of the crop grades N'o. 1 Northern. One farmer had an average of 47 bushels of wheat from 204 acres and another secured an average of 45 bushels from a field which has been "stubbled-in". Morse. — Thirty-one bushels per acre from 70 acres sown on stubble and 56 bushels per acre from whole quarter-section on summer fallow are among the yields recorded in this district. Sovereign. — The certified yield on the farm of D. E. Johnston, after careful measurement shows wheat returns — 51 acres summer fallow, 58 bushels per acre; 78 acres summer fallow, 63 bushels per acre; 34 acres summer fallow, 70 bushels per acre: 95 acres seeded on flax stubble, 55 bushels per acre; 128 acres on wheat stubble, 48 bushels per acre; 130 acres on fall ploughing, 40 bushels per acre; and 71 acres in flax yielded 30 bushels per acre. Humboldt. — Threshing is revealing good yields throughout Humboldt district. A field of 100 acres Marquis wheat yielded 4,000 bushels and graded No. 1 Northern. Kennedy. — Wheat in this district has averaged 32 bushels per acre and the grade was high. Alsask. — Wheat, fine sample, yielding all the way from 25 to 60 bushels per acre. Melfort. — Wheat averaged 30 bushels to the acre, and showed a high quality. Lloydminster. — Wheat in some places went 45 bushels, and oats 75 bushels to the acre. The average for wheat will be about 25 bushels to the acre. Elrose. — A half-section of wheat threshed here showed a total yield of 16.640 bushels, which is an average of 52 bushels per acre. Indian Head. — The average per acre of wheat in summer fallow in this district was 30 bushels and for stubble 18 bushels of wheat per acre. Eskbank.— W. P. McLachlan had 40 bushels of wheat. Darmody. — John Ask had 42 bushels of wheat. Gilroy. — Chas. Lundy had 40 bushels of wheat. Nokomis. — J. R. Durgan harvested 51 bushels of wheat, A. G. McFarlane had 48. W. J. Casterton had 47 bushels of wheat. Bremen. — G. Hoffman had 62 bushels of wheat and 114 bushels of oats. Domremy. — J. Georges had 62 bushels of wheat. Asqulth. — T. Peat had 41 bushels of wheat. Pope. — Wm. Kerr had 62 bushels of wheat, S. Laird had 55. Semans. — H. W. A. Johnston had 41 \'i bushels of wheat per acre, T. Hawley had 47 bushels of wheat, J. G. McGouch had 49J-4 bushels of wheat. Toung. — W. C. Teneycke had 50 bushels of wheat per acre, W. Mason and R. Cross each had 45 bushels per acre. Gerald. — J. L. Salkeld had 52 bushels of wheat per acre, Chas. Jackson had 48, and W. H. Tebb had 40. Zelma. — John McPherson had 44 bushels of wheat, Jas. Byers had 41. and V. P. Byan had 85 bushels of oats per acre. Unity. — C. W. Benjamin had 50 bushels of wheat and 85 bushels of oats per acre. George Sim had 52 bushels of wheat, C. E. Michael and W. J. Gra- ham each had 100 bushels of oats. A. G. Young had 50 bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of oats. Leney. — Robert Carr had 57 bushels of wheat, Frank Brown had 53, R. H. Weir had 48. Venn. — T. E. Evjen had 44H bushels of wheat, Tingey Bros, had 45 bushels of wheat. An hydale. — A. Dalrymple and J. Morrison each had 40 bushels of wheat. Roletta. — P. G. Alger had 49 bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of oats, I. Wilson had 49 bushels of w heat and 100 bushels of oats. Battleford. — A. E. Flack from 40 acres harvested 52 bushels of wheat per acre, M. Thebault had 45 bushels per acre. Name Bresnahar, J. S._. Shortreed, F. R... Hopper, P Firnquist, J. P.-.. Lipsit, E. A Neigel, J Begley, Jas Anderson, A Macey, H Moore, J. C Strutt, J. J Carruthers, J. G.. District Grain Acre- age Average Yield Total Yield Tompkins Wheat. 37 48 bu. 1.776 bu. Sceptre Wheat . 72 60 bu. 4,320 bu. Abbey Wheat . 80 61 bu. 4,860 bu. Stone. Oats... 7 116 bu. 812 bu. Lancer . Wheat . 10 57 bu. 570 bu. Prussia Wheat _ 420 47.6 bu. 19.992 bu. Lemsford Wheat. 80 54 bu. 4,382 bu. Burgogne Wheat. 60 43 bu. 2,380 bu. Rosetown Wheat . 110 52 bu. 5,720 bu. Fiske . Wheat - 97 50.05 bu. 4,855 bu. Flaxcombe... Oats... 10 100 bu. 1,000 bu. Rosetown Oats-.. 15.5 116 bu. 1,800 bu. Then too. we have Seager Wheeler at Rosthern who, apart from once more carrying off the World's Championship at Denver for wheat, was able to grow eighty bushels to the acre of Kitchener wheat and forty-six bushels per acre of Marquis in spite of the fact that the yield was reduced by June frosts, and that that district this year only had some three inches of rainfall. The quality of the grain crop of Saskatchewan is almost as satisfactory as the yield, as the percentage grading No. 1 Northern is high. On the whole the year has had very satisfactory results for agriculturists. Potatoes show an average yield per acre of 140 bushels with a total acreage of 30,796. Other field roots with a total of 9,680 acres give 212 bushels as an average yield per acre. 24 CANADA WEST MIXED FARMING SUCCESSFUL All Lines of Farming Pay Equally as Well as Wheat Growing A very good prairie view taken in Western Canada LIVE STOCK. — With the exception of hogs, there j is an increase in live stock returns. It would not have been a matter for sur- prise if live stock had remained practically stationary during 1915 owing to the extra atten- tion paid to grain, but it is sat- isfactory to note that there is an increase, even if it is not large. In some districts there is an increase of 7 per cent in milch cows, and a total increase for the province of 6 per cent over last year. Hogs show a decrease, but hogs so easily rise or fall in numbers that they reflect the state of the market much more quickly than any other branch of the live stock industry. Horses have held their own in numbers, although the market has not been encouraging. A good omen is the increase in the number of sheep. Sheep will play an important part in checking weeds, and we need their aid. Below is given a comparative table showing the totals of live stock for the years 1914 and 1915. There is nothing very extraordinary about this scene. It is a usual one on farms in Western Canada. Farmers are making use of the money cleared from their great fields of grain in 1913 to purchase cattle and go more into mixed farming. Year Horses Milch Cows Other Cattle Sheep Swine 1914 1915 640,035 667,443 338,994 358,540 541,504 573,021 177,752 192,024 477,360 329,246 Dairying. — There is a competent dairy branch connected with the Depart- ment of Agriculture. With the establishment and maintenance of creameries throughout the province, there is an increasing interest in this industry, with commensurate profits to the farmer. The climate favours winter dairying. The many native fodder plants help materially, and alfalfa can be so easily grown that it Is promoting a rapid increase in the production, which will shortly do away with the imported article, which up to the past few years has been very large. The increase in the number of creameries is not the means by which success is measured, but rather the volume of business done, not only in the individual creamery but the total volume for the province. Co-operative creameries under Government supervision, in five summer months of 1915, produced 1,640,000 lbs. butter, which is an increase of over 50 per cent on same period of 1914 and more than double that of same period of 1913. The Dairy Commission, in reporting on this great increase, says that, although the industry is developing rapidly, its possibilities are practically unlimited and a market for five times the butter now being produced can be found readily. The price of creamery butter has been advancing steadily for several years and is now so high as to stimulate western farmers to greater production. Saskatchewan farmers are urged to use the surplus from this year's crops to increase their dairy herds and facilities. Sheep. — The farmers In Saskatchewan are now going extensively into sheep raising and the Provinicial Government is assisting them to secure the best price for fleeces, by handling the wool and selling it en-bloc in the best competitive market. In 1915 the market price was 25 to 27 cents a pound. Poultry .—The Provincial Government in order to encourage the raising of poultry Is handling, for the farmers, the birds in the fall. A special instruction train goes through the country and demonstrates the correct method of kill- ing and dressing, collects the birds for sale and disposes of them in the best market, usually obtaining a few cents more a pound for the farmer than if sold in the nearest local market. Sheep raising one of the profit- able branches of farming FODDER CROPS Prairie Grasses. — Generally areof two classes, viz.: "Prairie wool" and "slough" or "mead- ow" hay. Domestic Hay. — Timothy occupies the greatest acreage. Rye and brome grasses are sown to a lesser extent. Clover, alsike, alfalfa and corn are re- ported in limited areas. Corn and Alfalfa.— A sam- ple of Northwestern Dent corn 8 feet 10 inches high from a 300-acre irrigated field on a farm near Prussia, Saskatch- ewan, is splendid evidence of the suitability of the climate and soil to corn raising when water at the proper time is assured through irrigation. The same farm has 1,000 acres of alfalfa. Between 30 and 40 varieties of corn recently harvested on the University farm at Saskatoon averaged 8 to 13 tons per acre. Western Canada requires for this season's farming operations 30,000 additional labourers. Wages S30 to $40 per month with board and lodging. This presents an excellent opportunity for every ambitious young man to get a start, eventually owning a farm of his own, and be independent for life. Secure information from the nearest Canadian Government agent as to what district you should go to and learn of the low railway rates available. Roots and Vegetables. — Potatoes easily occupy the most important place among the root crops, representing at least 70 per cent of the total acreage Turnips and mangels are grown to some extent for feed. Sugar beets have proved very successful in some parts of the province. Practically all the smaller garden vegetables are grown, and excellent results are obtained. Tree Planting. — To meet the lack of natural protection against wind and snow, the Dominion Government, since 1901, has distributed trees for planting in the Prairie Provinces. In many cases a large advance in farm values has resulted. These trees are raised at the Forestry Nursery Stations at Indian, Head and Saskatoon, in Saskatchewan, and are distributed to applicants under defined conditions with regard to cultivation. Fruit Growing. — The smaller bush fruits grow in profusion all through the province, and an excellent quality is obtained. Larger fruits are in the experimental stage as yet. A good variety of early apples has been produced on the Experimental Farm at Indian Head. The market for larger fruits is still supplied by the Ontario and British Columbia fruit lands. Fuel and Water. — The brown coal deposits in southern Saskatchewan are the sole sources of fuel in the vast territory between the head of the great lakes and the Rocky Mountains. In character they are true lignite of cretaceous age. The woody structure is very marked. As to quantity, there are not millions but billions of tons east and west of the Souris River. Lignites occur abundantly in the Estevan and the Souris River field. Operations are carried on by several mining companies. A large field is being opened up by branches of C.N.R. and C.P.R. near Wood mountain in the south, and promising reports of discoveries come from west of Saskatoon. A colliery is operated 40 miles south of Moose Jaw. Water is plentiful everywhere and in most districts it is only necessary to sink a shallow well to get a plentiful supply. CANADA WEST 25 SASKATCHEWAN'S SOIL AND CLIMATE THE SECRET OF ITS BIG YIELDS An Authenticated Yield.— It is not always possible to get authenticated statements of tjrain yields, as in many eases there are no faeilities for making an accurate measurement of land and products. Below are figures from a farm at Sovereign, Saskatchewan, where land and yields were carefully measured, and exact results can be quoted. They speak for themselves: Bushels per acre. 51 acres w heat on summer fallow - 57 43 78i 2 acres wheat on summer fallow 62 48 34 acres wheat on summer fallow _ 69 87 951 s acres w heat seeded on Max stubble 53 83 128 acres seeded on wheat stubble — 48 09 130 acres seeded on fall plowing and w heat stubble -- 40 04 71 acres flax — - - 30 08 25 acres barley -- - -■- 69 51acresoats -- -- --- 80 All wheat was the Marquis variety. Average yield of wheat on summer fallow, 62 . 45 bushels per acre. Total crop over 34,000 bushels. His Story In a Nutshell.— "You ask me how I started farming in Saskatchewan; here Is the story in a nutshell: ••I left the United States with my wife and three boysin March, 1907, having S2.000 cash, 10 horses, 3 cows and 3 cars of settler's effects. ' We homesteaded 640 acres of land 150 miles southwest of Saskatoon, about 12 miles from the present Biggar-Calgary line of the G. T. P. railroad. "Boys and self now have 1,600 acres of land; 524 acres in crop and enough prepared land now to make over 1.000 acres of crop in spring of 1915. "I had an offer of $35.00 an acre as it stood, but refused, being confident that this land "will be worth $50.00 per acre in two years. "We have a full set of machinery, binders, drills. 45-horsepower engine plow s and separators. Summer fallow looks like 40 to 45 bushel crop, and never better prospects for flax. "It is a splendid country for the rich and poor to get richer. Yours truly, Chas. F. Taylor & Sons, Springwater, Sask." Cost of Improving Land. — The following is an estimate of the cost of farm development, where it is done by contract work. Breaking, 3 inches deep, per acre, $3 to $5; harrowing, each operation, per acre, 35c; discing 3 times, per acre, $1.50; seeding, not including seed, per acre, 60c. ; seed, per bushel, market price; fencing per mile, 3 wires, $100 to $125; hauling grain from nearest station to land, per mile, per bus., %f.\ treating grain with bluestone or formalin, per bus., 3c. ; boring wells, using steel casings, per ft., $2.25 to $6; boring wells, using galvanized casings, per ft., $2 to $2.75; cost of good work horse, $150 to $200; cost of milch cow, $65; cost of sow for breeding, $10. Coal varies with locality from 50c. per ton at mine, to $6 per ton delivered at shipping point. A 6-roomed house, $700; a stable to accom- modate 8 horses, $300; implement shed, $100; granary for 2,000 bus., $100. Profit Per 100 Acres by Contract Work. — The following estimate is regarded as fair by practical men. It shows the cost and profit per acre on acropof wheat of 100 acres: Preparing the land or seeding, $4.00; drilling, 20c.; harvesting and stocking, 90c; threshing and delivering crop of 22.50 bushels per acre, (the average yield) at 12c per bushel, $2.70 per acre entire cost of wheat crop per acre delivered to the elevator, $7.80; add interest, 8 percent on land, at $20 per acre, $1.60; taxes (land, school and road) per acre, about 20c. ; total cost per acre, $9.60; receipts from sale of 22.50 bushels of wneat at 95c. per bushel, $21.37. Net profit per acre, $11.77. Profit on 100 acres, $1,177.00, a deduction must be made to allow for cost of seed which varies according to variety. Buying on Half-Crop Payments. — A farm is sometimes acquired at an agreed price on the following terms: The purchaser does all the work on the land, supplying seed, paying for twine and threshing, delivers one-half the crop to the elevator for the owner, who credits the amount received on the purchase price of the land. Education. — Schools are sustained by provincial aid and local rates. Except in special cases where qualified teachers cannot be obtained, the teacher must hold a certificate of qualification granted by the Department of Educa- tion. The university, located at Saskatoon, is supported and controlled by the province, a department of which is a college of agriculture with some of Canada's best educators and agricultural specialists on the faculty. No- where do the agricultural authorities give greater attention to welfare and education of the farmer than in the newer districts of this province. The number of schools in 1903 was 606; in 1913 there were 3,226, or only 500 schools short of one new school for every day of the w hole ten years, excluding Sundays. In addition to the university there are seventeen high schools. Land Value Taxation. — Saskatchewan's taxation assessments trend towards the straight land tax. The municipal law does not lend itself to the penalising of a man's thrift by making him pay taxes on his personal property his herds, his barns or his house. The land alone is assessed at its value, w ith- out regard of its improvement. The credit of the municipality is the security on the land itself. The laws are such that no one need lose his land for non-payment of taxes until full and ample notice has been given and a generous period of time allowed to redeem. There is no War Ta\ on Land. CENTRAL SASKATCHEWAN The Available Homesteads are principally in the northern portion of central Saskatchew an which is watered east and west by the main Saskatchew an river and by its chief branch, the North Saskatchewan. The surface generally is rolling prairie interspersed with wooded bluffs of poplar, spruce and pine, alternating with intruding portions of the great plain from the south. In soil and climate central Saskatchewan is well adapted to the raising of cattle, also wheat and other grains. North of tow nship 30 there is unlimited grazing land, horses, cattle and sheep feeding in the open most of the year. There is the necessary shelter when extreme cold weather sets in, and water is plentiful. Sheep do well. Many farmers have from 50 to 100 sheep and lambs. The district also possesses everything required for the growing of crops and there are satisfactory yields of all the smaller grains. The homesteader may add to his holdings by purchasing adjoining land from the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Northern and other corporations. These unimproved lands range from $15 an acre upwards. SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN Available Farm Land. — There are but few homesteads available in south- eastern Saskatchewan. The land is occupied by an excellent class of farmers, and values range from $15 per acre to $25 for unimproved prairie, and from $30 to $50 per acre for improved farms. In the neighbourhood of Moose Jaw mixed farming and grain raising are carried on with success. North and northwest, towards the Saskatchewan, are large settlements; but to the south and southwest is a tract of land available for homesteading. Southeastern Saskatchewan includes that section between Manitoba on the east and the third meridian on the west, extending some distance north of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It has more rainfall than portions farther west and less wood than the portion lying north. In character and productiveness of soil, southeastern Saskatchewan is a continuation of Manitoba, but contains more prairie area. NORTHERN SASKATCHEWAN Available Homesteads. — Northern Saskatchewan has not yet been opened to any extent for settlement. There are approximately 80 million acres beyond the railway at Prince Albert which time, zeal, and railway enterprise will eventually make accessible. Furs, forest wealth, and fisheries are rec- ognized as a national asset, but thousands of acres of fertile land lie beyond the existing lines of railway — awaiting development. Northern Saskatchewan has natural resources sufficient to maintain a population equal to that of any- European country in corresponding latitude. SASKATCHEWAN SOILS In reviewing the soils of Saskatchewan examined during a period of twenty years, taking those representing large areas and selected from districts at considerable distance apart, covering nearly the entire province, Prof. Shutt, Dominion Chemist says: "It is worthy of remark that the larger number of the soils examined, and more particularly those in the noted wheat growing districts, have been found to be abundantly supplied with humus- forming material and nitrogen. They possess abundant stores of plant food, and are of high fertility." In some parts, especially in the districts that are partly wooded with scrub poplar, etc., the soil is a grayish black loam of a decidedly clayey nature. The nitrogen in the water free soil is almost half of one per cent with notable amounts of potash and lime, and an average phosphoric acid content. In other parts the description of soils by the same authority, gives them as black, sandy loams of the true prairie type, rich in vegetable matter and nitrogen, with excellent percentages of phosphoric acid and potash. Climate. — In summer the temperature often rises to 100 degrees. Winters are cold, lasting from end of November to middle or end of March. The atmosphere is clear and dry owing to the altitude, 1,500 to 3,000 feet. Snowfall is light. Bright sunshine is the rule. Latitude. — The British Isles lie in the same latitude as the province of Saskatchewan. Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, the greater part of Germany and about half of Russia, are as far north as Regina. Edinburgh is farther north than any of the settled parts of Saskatchewan. St. Petersburg, Russia, and Christiana, Norway, are in the same northern latitude as the northern boundary of Saskatchewan. Telephones. — An important adjunct to farm life is the rural telephone. With these Saskatchewan is well provided. Government reports on Saskatchewan telephones show the wire miles of long distance system have increased from 3,280 in 1910 to 15,760 in 1915, the exchanges from 20 to 99, toll offices from 100 to 311. Rural lines are rapidly being constructed as needed, and receive assistance from the Provin- cial Government. 30 CANADA WEST O S ij \jjP D „ Q 1 ' Farm Buildings Similar to these May be Found in all Parts of Alberta ALBERTA 100,000,000 ACRES OF ARABLE LAND AVERAGE WHEAT 36.16 BUSHELS — OATS 57.33. A Vast Plateau 2,000 to 3,000 Feet Above Sea Level BARLEY 34.83 THERE probably never was in the history of any country covering such a large area, with an acreage of less than 4 million acres, such an abundant yield recorded. Below are given reports from a number of districts of the province from two to three hundred miles apart, showing phenomenal yields of wheat upwards of 70 bushels per acre. Of course there have been smaller yields than those reported, but when the general average of 36.16 bushels of wheat per acre is considered, it is quite evident that the small yield has been the exception rather than the rule. It is not in wheat alone that these immense yields have been given, but oats have gone 130 bushels to the acre. Hardly a district shows a wheat average of under 30 bushels. It must be apparent, that if one farmer in a locality can get 50 bushels an acre of wheat, other farmers with the same soil, climate and conditions, should be able to get the same yields if they are equally good agriculturists. In the long run it comes down pretty much to the man's own ability. Be- low will be found some of the yields. Reid Hill. — Mr. O. L. Wooters had a yield of 57 bushels to the acre from his summer fallow; Mr. James Dann from 60 acres of stubble got 2,382 bushels of Red Fife, an average of 48 bushels to the acre. In conversation with Mr. Paul Norton, who is doing a lot of threshing in the Reid Hill district, he says that of eight places on which he threshed, the yields were from 40 to 57 bushels per acre. Alston. — Mr T. Lawrence, had a yield of 60 bushels to the acre from 40 acres of summer fallow. High River. — Mr. Peter Peterson's wheat went 55 bushels to the acre. Mr. A. C. Middleton had 47 bushels of wheat to the acre off fall ploughing. Fred Mensinger's summer fallow yielded him 66 bushels of wheat to the acre. W. Myers and Joe Spanke, from breaking got 56 bushels and 51 bushels respectively. Oats, S. E. Taylor had 105 and J. W. Johnston 134 bushels. Tom Margetts, had 25 acres of oats from which he obtained 3,350 bushels, average 134 bushels per acre. From the balance of his crop, 175 acres, he garnered 21,875 bushels, which made an average of 125 bushels to the acre. Woolchester district threshed 54 bushels an acre from 36 acres of wheat. Forty-nine acres wheat averaged 58 bushels per acre; 200 acres wheat part of which was on stubble, yielded 8,600 bushels; 230 acres yielded 9,200 bughels. Bassano. -Robert Comer, threshed 70 acres of wheat on irrigated land which yielded an average of 54 bushels to the acre. Five acres of wheat grown on land that was planted to potatoes a year ago yielded an average of 69 bushels per acre. Mr. Rolism had 100 bushels of oats per acre from a large field. Grassy Lake. — Over 20,000 bushels of wheat from about 570 acres is the crop of a local farmer here. Yield was over 35 bushels of wheat per acre. There is also reported a yield of 50 bushels per acre from 56 acres; 6,000 bushels from 260 acres; 10,000 bushels from 300 acres; 5,100 bushels from 130 acres; 5,100 bushels from 100 acres. Gus Schmidt had 100 bushels of oats per acre, Ed Johnson 95, and Walter Gwilliam had 39y 3 bushels of wheat from 130 acres. Burdett, Alta. — A farmer of this neighbourhood threshed an average of 53 bushels an acre from 640 acres of wheat. The lowest yield recorded here was 28 bushels per acre of wheat. Gideon Olson had 56 bushels per acre; Lars Johnson 67 bushels; Mr. Elford got 69}^ bushels from a 60-acre field. Sherburn. — Hart Bros, had 51 bushels of wheat per acre from 100 acres. Brant, Alta. — Wheat 65 bushels to the acre and oats 135 bushels, grading No. 1 throughout and representing the crop, not of a hand-picked area but of whole section of land, are reported. Dan Richmond had 160 acres, summer fallow, and obtained 10,240 bushels of No. 1 Marquis wheat. On an adjoining quarter section which was fall ploughed, he obtained 8,320 bushels. The average was 52 bushels. What appears to be an incredible yield of wheat, is reported from the farm of Messrs. Bruer and Grieves. The field consisted of 43 acres of Marquis wheat and yielded 72 bushels per acre. Mr. Ernest Hanson had an average yield of 60 bushels per acre. Monarch, Alta. — Yield of wheat reported by threshers indicated that the majority of the fields ran about 50 bushels an acre. Oats also gave very heavy yields, one field reaching 138 bushels to the acre. One farmer, who had 1,000 acres under grain crop, had an average of 57 bushels, 45 lbs., of wheat, grading No. 1, per acre from a 160-acre field. B. Nykoff had 112 bushels per acre from a 55-acre field of oats. He also had 54 bushels of wheat per acre; N. Nykoff had 50 bushels from an 80-acre field, while N. H. MelchelPs crop ranged from 34 to 48 bushels per acre. Medicine Hat. — Two hundred thousand bushels of wheat were threshed from a 4,000-acre field near here. Forty-five bushels to the acre is also reported. CANADA WEST 31 ALBERTA'S AVERAGE YIELD OF WHEAT PER ACRE WAS 36.16 BUSHELS. Cr*lgm>le.— Two thousand nine hundred and twelve bushels of wheat was the crop taken ofT a 60-acre Held on Captain R. B. Eaton's farm, in the Craigm\le district. Although this land has been cropped for six years out of the past seven, the yield is a little over 48 1 L . bushels per acre, grading No. 1. Vermilion.— Mr. D. B. Winters and Sons, of Claysmore. threshed 55 acres of wheat that produced 3,400 bushels, or 63 bushels to the acre; oats averaged 112 bushels per acre. Trochu.— Mr Telesbore Lemey of Trochu. threshed 2.500 bushels of wheat on 45 acres measured land, with affidavits available. This works out an average of 55?.,' bushels per acre, grading Xo. 1. MlUn.- Mr J. Cope of Munson. threshed a 20-acre field of summer-fallowed land, yielding 58 bushels per acre. Glefchen.— Big yields are not confined to small acreage. Mr. F. Corbel] of the Gleichen district threshed 17,000 bushels of wheat frdm 290 acres, yielding a little better than 58 bushels per acre. Field of oats yielded over 104 bushels per acre. Queenstown.— Mr. Walter Hoerle of Queenstown threshed 80 acres of Red Fife that averaged 51 bushels, and 4) 2 measured acres of Marquis wheat which yielded 83H bushels per acre. Land and measurements guaranteed. Nanton. — J. H. Garbutt of Nanton, threshed 80 acres of Marquis wheat, which averaged 52 bushels per acre. W. H. Reed of Nanton, threshed 90 bushels of oats per acre. J. R. Eckert had 150 acres of wheat on stubble disced last fall and drilled last spring, that averaged 40 bushels. Lethbridge.— The Provincial Jail Farm at Lethbridge, threshed 3.918 bushels of Marquis wheat from 75?.» acres, an average yield of 51.72 bushels per acre. Included in the above was one field of 24.72 acres which yielded 1,503 bushels, or an average yield of 60.8 bushels per acre. Prospy. — Mr. A. G. Kendall of Prospy district. Township 7, Range 8, reports having threshed three measured acres which yielded 8IJ4 bushels per acre, also a field of 43 acres, which averaged 53 li bushels wheat per acre. In the same district Mr. T. N. Sprinkle reports 58 bushels per acre. Nobleford. — At Nobleford Mr. Noble reports having threshed a 90-acre field of oats which averaged 111 bushels and 23 pounds to the acre. His summer-fallow averaged 120 bushels of oats. A yield of wheat is reported from here as going 49 bushels and 40 pounds from a 63-acre field. Baron. — In the Baron district, Arie Versluis received 54 bushels per acre of No. 1 from a 1 60-acre patch Mr. FinKe, in the same district, received 70 bushels per acre from a measured 8- acre field. He also received 120 bushels of oats per acre from 85 acres, and 85 bush- els per acre of barley from a 60-acre field. Carmangay. — Mr. J. W. Rosenberger threshed 5.100 bush- els wheat from 99 acres. Brooks. — A field of Marquis wheat, on the estate of the Duke of Sutherland gave 69 bushels per acre. This field had special attention in the mat- ter of cultivation, but other land on the same farm with only ordinary cultivation averaged 50 bushels of wheat per acre. Another farmer threshed from 160 acres 9,467 bushels of wheat, an average of 59 bushels per acre. On a "stubbled-in" field, an average of 30 bushels per acre was the return from a 400-acre field. A farmer with 900 acres had an average of 40 bushels of wheat, another had 42 bushels of wheat and 84 bushels of oats. A thresher here says the lowest he threshed in 1915 was 37 bushels per acre. Plncher Creek. — A claim is made that a 100-acre field of spring wheat produced 62.000 bushels and another field of 200 acres yielded 1 1 .000 bushels. On one farm wheat went slightly better than 60 bushels per acre; one 35- acre plot of oats made a record of 120 bushels. TAXATION IN CANADA The Additional War Revenue required in Canada is raised by increase in Customs tariff, taxation of banks, loan companies, a tax on railway and steamship tickets, telegrams, postal matter, patent medicines and proprietary articles, AND NOT ONE CENT OF WAR TAX is levied on lands. Barley is one of the best paying crops in Western Canada. It is largely grown for feed, taking the place of corn as a fattening product. Sterling. — A farmer here says he had 20.000 bushels of wheat from 500 acres. This crop was sold early for ff 16,400, a gross return of *32. 80 per acre. Magrath. — Eleven thousand bushels of oats from a 100-acre field is reported. The farmer who grew these has taken a total of $70 per acre from his land in two years. Bert Ackeberg had 66 bushels wheat per acre. Three Hills. — A field of Marquis wheat by actual weight and measurement yielded 63 bushels 40 pounds per acre. Milk Kiver. Alberta.— Twenty acres here yielded an average of 62H bushels of wheat to the acre. This land had formerly had a crop of peas and was in a high state of cultivation. From a " volunteer" crop a field of 100 acres yielded 2,300 bushels of wheat, an average of 23 bushels per acre. Wheat sown on cultivated land averaged 41 bushels per acre. New Dayton. — A farmer here got an average of 30 bushels per acre from an 800-acre field of spring wheat. Tofield.— Threshing indicates that the average wheat yield of the district was 35 bushels per acre; oats, 70. Provost. — Wheat yielded 30 bushels per acre, oats 70. barley 60. Lacombe. — Areas and yields carefully measured, leaving no latitude for crops this year. Areas and yields carefully measured, leaving no latitude for guess-work, show wheat crops running as high as 72 bushels per acre. The yields of grain, as reported by threshers in all parts of the country, are remark- ably high, and probably constitute record crops for the West. Returns of over one hundred bushels of oats to the acre are frequently reported, and yields of wheat of 50, 60, and even 70 bushels to the acre have been secured. Aldersen.— In the Aldersen district, Mr. Potter received 67 bushels of wheat to the acre from 23 acres, and 40 acres that yielded 62 bushels. Lemsford.— B. R. Talbot, 74 bushels per acre of wheat from 31 acres. Calgary.— Wm. Miller says: "My oats run from 65 to 85 bushels per acre, barley from 44 to 60 bushels, and spring wheat 35 bushels. Once or twice the wheat got a little touch of frost but not enough to hurt. "As to climate I might say in a word: You cannot beat it, take it all year round. We have cold snaps in winter, but as a rule they do not last long, and as to being healthy, I have lived around here 33 years now and I have never had a doctor prescribe for me. I got married 24 years ago and my wife and I have raised a fine healthy family of nine sons and two daughters, and why should we not feel content in such a country as this where the sun shines almost 365 days a year? My wife and I are young and strong, enjoying the best of health and glad that our paths led us to this happy land." Foremost. — A farmer at Foremost, Alberta, had a yield of wheat which he expected would yield 35 bushels per acre, but when threshed, this field actually yielded 51 bushels per acre. Yields of 40, 50 and even 60 bushels per acre of wheat are reported from many districts. Vulcan. — Wheat yields reported here include 61 bushels per acre on summer fallow, 39 on stubble and 47 on spring ploughing; oats ran to 110 bushels. Se\enty-eight acres of Marquis wheat produced 4,688 bushels, an average of a little over 60 bushels an acre. On the same farm, oats w hich had been sow n on stubble yielded 100 bushels per acre. One hundred and forty acres of wheat which had been "stubbled in" averaged 53 M bushels per acre; 60 acres of breaking averaged 60'A bushels per acre; a 75-acre field, partly summer fallow and partly fall ploughing, averaged 45 bushels to the acre; other crops show averages of 50, 51 and 57 bushels per acre. Millet.— One farmer averaged 35 to 38 bushels per acre with his wheat. Keoma.— Among the yields at Keoma, Alta.. 20 acres of Marquis wheat is reported to have averaged 70 bushels, 42 acres making 59, and another 20 acres averaged 70 and a 10-acre field 63 bushels per acre. 32 CANADA WEST RICHNESS OF ALBERTA'S SOIL TOLD IN CROP RETURNS Hot law. — An 80-aore field of wheat near Retlaw, Alta., averaged 48 bushels per acre, a 75-aere field 43 bushels and a 70-acre field 40 bushels. J. Joslin, near here, threshed 60 bushels No. 1 hard, from 24 acres, and 41 bushels to the acre from 140 acres. Tabor. — A fanner here, formerly from Spokane, reports securing 15,000 bushels of wheat from a half-section of land, or an average of over 46 bushels per acre. Another farmer got 60 bushels of wheat per acre, and another 50 bushels spring rye and 97 bushels barley per acre; another farmer got 39 bushels per acre, while a neighbour got 40 bushels. RedclifTe. — A farmer near here threshed 4,200 bushels of wheat from 75 acres, an average of 56 bushels. An- other man threshed 450 acres of wheat which yielded 19.000 bushels, or an average of over 42 bushels per acre for the entire crop. Raymond. — One wheat field here averaged 54 bushels per acre, another 55, another 53, and several went over 50. Henry Holmes, who captured first prize for his bushel of Marquis wheat at the Dry Farming Congress in 1912. took an average of 52 bushels an acre off a 40- acre field. Warner.— A 300-aere field averaged 47 bushels per acre of wheat. Six thousand seven hundred bushels of oats were threshed from a 65-acre field. Ten acres of oats yielded 1,100 bushels, an average of 110 bushels per acre, and a small plot of fall wheat yielded 50 bushels per acre. Macleod. — Jas. Beattie had 69} (. bushels of wheat from a 26-acre field. A farmer near here grew 8,000 bushels of wheat which went 63 bushels to the acre. Daysland. — Some of Jas. A. Benner's wheat went over 40 bushels to the acre. J. H. Wagner had over 90 bushels of oats to the acre, and of wheat he had over 40 bushels per acre. . S. A. Tofthagen had 23 acres of wheat which gave 47 bushels to the acre. Lcthbridge. — Wheat crops from 107 farms in Southern Alberta show an average of 53 bushels per acre; some of the fields included were small in area but others took in whole farms. Among the total were 300 acres which averaged 52 bushels; 100 acres which averagedj60; 320 acres 61 bushels; 175 acres 55 bushels, and 500 acres 52 bushels. Thirty-one acres of summer fallow yielded 2,292 bushels, an average of 74 bushels per acre. Three measured acres of wheat yielded 245 bushels, an average of 81J4 bushels per acre. A field of 43 acres averaged 53J^ bushels. A 1-acre tesl plot Of Marquis wheat yielded 99 bushels, and a 34-acre field averaged 60J4 bushels. There are on this farm 200 acres of Marquis wheat which it Is expected will average over 50 bushels per acre. A 25-acre field at Lethbridge yielded 1,503 bushels of wheat, an average of a trifle over 60 bushels to the acre. The wheat weighed 67 pounds to the bushel. A field of 150 acres of oats yielded 15,528 bushels, an average of about 103 bushels per acre; one- third of this crop was from spring breaking, the balance from land broken in the summer of 1914. Mr. L. A. Felger, manager of the Ohio Alberta Farming Company, PENNSYLVANIANS WELL PLEASED WITH WESTERN CANADA. Voices from Pennsylvania Sound its Praises. Harrisburg, Pa. — F. A. Harrison, Canadian Government Representative, says: "I am getting personal letters from some of the farmers who went to Western Canada from this district in the spring of 1915 and they are all well pleased with the results obtained during the first year. One farmer writes that he averaged 54J2 bushels of wheat from 32 acres; 104 bushels of oats per acre from 18 acres. These crops were obtained from land that had been cultivated Pure-bred stock of Western Canada is fairly well shown in the illustration below Looking them over before sending them to market A splendid bunch of grass-fed "critters" the previous year. Another Pennsylvania farmer who went to Western Canada in March put 64 acres of grain in newly broken prairie. His oats averaged 45 bushels, bar- ley 39, and wheat 27J4- He did so well that two of his brothers and a cousin are planning to go in the spring of 1916." From $6.00 to $32,000.00. — M. A. Lowry, of Taylorville, Alberta, says: " I came to Alberta sixteen years ago last April, with only $6.00 after our fare and expenses were paid. I now have six one-quarter sections of good farm land (960 acres), 400 acres under cultivation. Have an 8-room house costing $1,600.00, a hay barn with capacity of 101 tons of hay and will stable 36 head of stock; other buildings worth at least $900. Have harnesses for 18 head of work horses, 2 complete sets of machinery except one field cultivator, one threshing machine. All in good condition and all paid for except $90.00. I have 172 cattle, 54 horses, 40 hogs, 74 sheep, a nice variety of poultry. My land is worth $25.00 per acre or $24,000.00. There is against this land as payments not due and loans $5,000.00. My live stock and machinery would sell for $13,000. The first two years in Alberta I was obliged to work out considerably, not having horses to farm with, but with the aid of my wife we raised good gardens and got sale for a lot of the garden stuff. It is hard to beat Alberta for gardens. I soon saw the beauty of this country for mixed farming, and geven miles south of Lethbridge, reports 20 acres of oats yielding 1 15K bushels to the acre. He also had wheat yielding from 65 to 75J-3 bushels per acre .according to methods of cultivation. A 3-acre plot of Irrigated land at the Government Experimental Station gave an average of 76 bushels of Khakov wti' Mt to the acre and it weighed 67 lbs. to the measured bushel; a field of Marquis wheat at same place yielded 65 bushels an acre. From 175 acres one farmer threshed 9,600 bushels of wheat — over 54 bushels per acre. A grain expert here believes that the average yield of hard wheat in Southern Alberta this season, between Calgary and the International Bound- ary, will reach 40 bushels an acre, establishing a record w hich cannot be beaten on the entire continent. turned my attention in that direction, beginning with hogs as they were the easiest to stock up with. I got a few calves and colts as fast as I could and held to these until they were grown. Our milk cows and poultry practically serve our table. It is a pleasure to live in Alberta compared with any other country I have been in. The climate is just rigid enough in the winter and warm enough in the summer, with cool nights, to keep us vigorous and well. Consump- tion and such diseases are almost unknown. Out of a family of eight children, wife and myself, we have never suffered any inconvenience from any kind of disease. We have excellent schools, and due to the Government being strict to enforce what is known as the "Lord's Day Act," which prohibits work on Sunday, the church is usually well attended. In our schools here the Government furnishes all read- ers free up to the fourth and compels children to go to school to the age of 13. WAR DOES NOT AFFECT FARMERS Peter Larson, of Dalroy, Alberta, writes: "I arrived in Alberta in July, 1912 coming from Nebraska, and purchased a half-section of land east of Calgary. In the season of 1913 I had 240 acres in crop and threshed 10,000 bushels of wheat, oats and barley. In 1914 I had 300 acres in crop, and threshed 9,000 bushels of grain. At the time of writing my crop for this season is not threshed. So far as the climate is concerned, my family and myself like it very much. . „ "The fact that C anada is taking a part in the present war does not affect the farmer, either in increased taxes or otherwise, excepting that we are receiving better prices for the stuff we have to sell, and therefore making more . money than before." CANADA WEST 33 YIELDS OF ALBERTA WHEAT AND OATS SEEM UNBELIEVABLE 500 Acres Wheat A>eraged 51 Bushels.— John Foreston of New Dayton, Alberta, before a Notary Public swore he had 47 bushels of wheat to the acre from 200 acres. H. G. Stinson of Foremost, Alberta, gave an affidavit that his 44 acres of wheat averaged 60 bushels to the acre. F. J. Morrison cf New Dayton. Alberta, signed a sworn statement that he had 51 bushels to the acre from 500 acres. Made $'»5,000.00 in 10 Years.— " I came here in 1903 and honiesteaded. After four years I t>ought another quarter and three years after that I bought four more quarter-sections, making now in all 960 acres of land. I had 6 horses and 6 cows when 1 came here. I now have 65 horses, 35 head of c.iitle. 5 hogs. 1 have 75 acres in cultivation. 1 have made $25,000 since 1 came here. I would advise anybody to come here. Andrew B. Nelson, Holden, Alta." Made $1?.0©0.00. Would Not Sell.— When I came here in 1903 I home- steaded One-quarter of railroad land. 1 had 3 horses. 8 head of cattle. After getting settled I had only $25 in my pocket to start on. Now I have 140 acres under cultivation. I have 30 head of cattle and have sold a number Poultry Pays the Grocery Bill. every year. I have 100 chickens, 50 hogs. I have made money in the Holden District. I am now worth at least $12,000. The Holden District suits me and I am going to stay in it. J. M. Andrews, Holden, Alta." FODDER CROPS Alfalfa. — Many ranchers in Alberta are sowing this crop on an extensive scale. At the Experimental Farms at Lethbridge and Lacombe an average of three tons of cured hay per acre has been obtained from non-irrigated lands in one crop, and two or three crops can be obtained in a year. From these stations alfalfa seed has been distributed. As an illustration of the success of this fodder, it was a Maple Creek, Alberta, farmer who carried off the first, second and sweepstakes prizes at the Dry Farming Congress at Denver, in the fall of 1915, at w hich exposi- tion there was shown excellent samples of three cuttings in one year. Clover. — The little white clover grows profusely everywhere. Alsike and red varieties succeed wherever tried. Timothy does well. A good market at from $18 to $20 per ton. Corn Raising in Alberta. — Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. — Ensilage corn 10 feet high is this town's claim to be included in the corn-belt. It was planted June 8th and cut September 8th on a farm in this district. A field of corn near Medicine Hat yielded 40 bushels per acre in 1915. At the Cardston, Alberta, exhibition in 1915 great interest was centred in the corn exhibit. There were stalks of North Western Dent that measured nine feet, taken from a field that yielded eighteen tons to the acre. Nineteen farmers around Taber, Alberta, had successful plots of sweet corn averaging one to twenty-five acres each. Their success indicates that corn will become an important crop in this district. OTHER AUTHENTIC YIELDS REPORTED FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF ALBERTA IN 1915. WHEAT OATS /\tre nr i\Lro Rlddellvale — R B Kiddell 110 51 40 f i / ■ \ • r~\/~i ,i -i i ii 1 1 A 4o Oft 80 t'amrosc — F I Farlcv 60 34 50 12 73 Ridgedotigh — Campbell Bros. 35 40 20 77 25 Scotstown — R S Tod 13 44 33 R. S. Tod 15 47 Hanna J. W. Taylor."." ""II"" OA £U 30 14 80 G. A. Burns... 300 35 60 65 200 34 Innisfree — S. D. Horgan 880 35 250 70 Richdale— W. A. Pinkerton 90 37 50 54 B. Hall 40 33 7 70 S. W. Jackson 32 47.9 25 72 E. T. Coghlan 65 24.3 30 89 J. McCluskey 55 43 40 75 E. S. Stafford 42 54 35 80 E. S. Stafford 48 35 J. Burns 30 43 8 10 81.5 McNaUy— T. Moran 580 35 40 95 Vegrevllle — E. B. Wagar 39 51.20 25 59 H. Trenhaile 55 77.50 Hawkdale— W. Havden & Sons 25 70.33 25 55 W. Havden & Sons . 40 40 50 Youngstown — A. W. Lyster 50 41 40 55 Lamont — R. J. Torrie 90 30 195 50 J. Alton 70 30 70 50 H. Schultz 48 32 78 41 A Paying Western Farm. — A sample of the productiveness of Canadian farm lands is found in the experience of Mr. D. H. Engle of Humboldt, Iowa, who owns a quarter-section in Gleichen, Alberta, He rented this quarter on the basis that the renter w as to furnish everything except threshing and haul- ing, and one-third of the net receipts were to go to the owner. Although only 80 acres were in crop, Mr. Engle received a profit of $612.65, which was his net rental of the land for one season. ALBERTA'S THREE DIVISION'S Northern Alberta.— North of the end of steel extends 75 per cent of this rich province, yet unexploited. When the railways push into Athabaska and Peace river districts it will be realized that Alberta owns an empire north of the Saskatchewan, a country set apart by nature to provide homes for millions of agrarian people, when the plains to the south are filled up. This northern portion varies from great open stretches of prairie land to .heavily timbered regions, the whole watered by majestic rivers. The banks of these rivers are usually covered for miles back with dense timber — spruce and cottonwood predominating. Central Alberta extends from Red Deer river northward to the height of land between the Saskatchewan and the Athabaska. Its great wealth is in its deep black humus varying in depth from ten inches to three feet, overlying a warm subsoil. The northern and western portions of Central Alberta have some "brush" land with soil equal to that of the open prairie. The cost of clearing is slight, and there is the advantage of shelter for cattle, and an absolute assurance of splendid water. There is a good market for the fuel and timber obtained in clearing. Practically all of the land between Edmonton and Athabaska — and between Edmonton and LaBiche to the northeast — has been subdivided for homesteading. Southern Alberta is open and rolling, and devoid of timber except along the streams and the Rocky Mountains' foothills. The soil is a fertile loam. This Farmer Made His Money from Cultivating His Land Well in Western Canada. Could Anyone Desire More Complete Surroundings? 34 CANADA WEST ALBERTA PASTURES FURNISH BEEF READY FOR THE CHICAGO MARKET The climate is ideal, with pleasing summers and mild winters. Stock pasture in the open air during winter, grazing on the nutritive sun-dried grasses. The absence of timber in Southern Alberta is compensated for by the supply of coal. As a grazing country. Southern Alberta has had few equals, for the hills and valleys well watered, afford excel- lent pasturage Winter wheat sown on new breaking, or summer-fallowed land, from the middle of July to the with the previous year, according to the Dairy Commissioner for the province. For the year previous the butter output was a little more than 5,000,000 pounds. For the year ending in October of last year the output from six creameries was 7,400,000 pounds of butter. And the most gratifying fact is that the prices were better. In addition to this a lot of cheese was manufactured. Also this fact of a greater butter output indicates that the farmers are going end of September, is ready for harvest from the 1st to the 15th of August In the following year. Climate and soil make this an ideal wheat-growing district. Considerable spring wheat is grown, as well as oats, barley and flax. The production of sugar-beets compares favourably with that of Germany and the world. Water for domestic and farm purposes is easily obtained at reasonable depth. In certain sections of the Canadian West, as in the American West, the soil is unexcelled for growing cereals, but the geographical location and relative position to the rain avenues is not advantageous, not only the requisite amount of rain but its conservation is essential to the growing of crops, and that is the meaning of "dry farming." This is being successfully followed In the southern portion of Southern Alberta. Some of the district can also be easily and successfully farmed by meansof irrigation. EDUCATION The organization of free district schools is optional with settlers, the Gov- ernment liberally supporting them. Every child in Alberta is given the opportunity of a good, free education. For the past three or four years schools have been opened up at the rate of one a day, and educational facilities range from the little wooden schoolhouse in a remote country district to the progressive new university at Edmonton. Any part of Alberta may be created into a publig school district, provided that it does not exceed five miles in length or breadth, and contains four per- sons resident, who would be liable to assessment, and eight children between the ages of five and sixteen. The Government has established free agricultural and domestic science schools for farmers' sons and daughters during the winter season. Demonstration Farms, which are in reality model agricultural schools for the neighbouring farmer, have been established by the Government at several points throughout the province. As a result of such liberal encouragement the farmers of Alberta become from year to year more thoroughly organized and up-to-date. Last year they owned and controlled 50 co-operative elevators, and next season will control 100, making arrangements as well for a more advantageous system of marketing their grain. Railways. — The province is exceedingly well served with railways, there being the Canadian Pacific, Cana- dian Northern, Grand Trunk Pacific, and their branches, as well as the Provincial government road building to the northwest. Government and Other Telephones. — The Government operates the telephone system, including about 9,000 miles of long distance wires, and 12.000 miles of rural or farmers' lines, and pursues an active policy of stimulat- ing the organization of rural companies by giving as a bonus all poles required. Cattle Raising. — No less profitable than grain-growing in Alberta is cattle-raising. For the most part of the year they feed out-doors, and re- quire very little attention. There is plenty of water, and in the northern or central portion ample shelter. The wild grasses make the best of feed, but now a great many farmers are taking up the cultivation of the tame grasvs. With these they all do well, alfalfa being a special favourite. Excellent yields are always secured. t attle from the Macleod district recently commanded the highest figures at the Chicago markrt for range steers, and they not only brought the best price on the day of sale but also the best price for any cattle of same class last season. The shipment consisted of 280 head of range steers and the prices ran from $8.55 to $8.90 per 100 lbs. Seventeen of the steers averaged 1,240 lbs each. This is the third year In succession that Macleod steers have been shipped to Chicago and have topped the market. Alberta's Butter Production.— The butter output of Alberta has in- creased approximately 2,000,000 pounds during the past year, as compared MILITARY SERVICE IN CANADA IS VOLUNTARY No man is compelled to join the army or serve in the trenches. Canada's military forces are composed entirely of volunteers; all men are free to serve or not serve, as they themselves decide. There is no conscription in Canada. in for mixed farming to a greater extent. This is true not only of the northern districts of the province, but throughout the whole province, notwithstanding that the southern part has in the past been mainly a grain-raising country. The province has 58 creameries. During the past season, one Edmonton firm paid the farmers of Hardisty district $7,200 for milk and cream and, as a local paper remarks, this is just so much "found" profit, as the cows pasture on the open prairie and there is little or no expense connected with their keep. v The prices paid for butter fat averaged about 24c per lb. Although the farmers have been very successful with their grain crops, they realize that the surest and most permanent pros- perity comes from mixed farming, and the dairy industry of the country, important as it already is, is only in its infancy. Fruit Growing. — Small fruits do well jn all districts. Crabapples, apples and plums are grown south of Edmonton. In Southern Alberta strawberries ripen in August and have an ex- cellent flavour. Heavy mulching in winter is necessary. Ripe strawberries were picked in open gardens in Medicine Hat on October 28. The postmaster at Hardisty picked 156 quarts of fine strawberries from a plot one-twentieth of an acre in extent, which proves conclusively the entire suitability of this country for small fruit cultivation. A settler at Beaver Lake ripened twenty melons in the open air, without glass protection. Many farmers are having good success with a special variety of crabapples, which is excellent for cooking and preserving and which it is claimed can be grown in any quantity. Spring Wheat. The leading varieties are Red Fife and Marquis, which grade hard and are known as Manitoba Hard Wheat. They fetch a higher price than any other varieties grown. The Marquis, a re- cent development, matures about 15 days earlier than Red Fife. Comparison Yield, Alberta and Western States. For the five years, 1908 to 1912 inclusive, the average yield of spring wheat per acre in Alberta and the Western States was as follows: Alberta, 20.6; Iowa, 16.4; Min- nesota, 16.2; Wisconsin, 14.7; Nebraska, 13; S. Dakota, 11.4; N.Dakota, 11.5; Kansas, 8.9. Oats. — The central portion of the province is re- nowned for its superior quality of oats. In Edmonton district 50 to 60 bushels to the acre is ordinary, and 125 bushels not uncommon. For four years the first prize grain at the Provincial Seed Fair has weighed not less than 48 lbs. to the bushel. The average yield per acre is 36.42 by measure; average weight over 45 lbs. per bushel. Barley, flax and rye are also very successful crops. Sunshine.— In the north, from June 1 to August 1 there are but two hours of darkness. The almost continuous sunlight causes very rapid fructification. Rainfall.— The greatest rainfall is in May, June, July and part of August— the growing season. The latter parts of August and September are dry. Alberta Soils.— Frank T. Shutt, M. A. F. I. C., Dominion Chemist, says: "It may be said that, as Southern Alberta is of the true prairie character, so Northern Alberta is largely wooded, enjoying a more liberal rainfall and is naturally a country better adapted to mixed farming. The soils of North- ern Alberta are for the most part characterized by high percentages of organic matter and nitrogen. Available Homesteads.— These are to be found west and north of Edmon- ton—territory made accessible by the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian Northern Railways— in an immense stretch of splendid country. Wheat and oats are reliable crops. Rainfail is certain. Mixed farming is highly successful. The wild grasses and pea vine supply ample feed for stock; water is plentiful and easily secured. On into the foothills and the mountains are stretches of prairie land, through which the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northern railways are constructed. CANADA WEST 35 BRITISH COLUMBIA The "California" of Canada RICH IN NATURAL RESOURCES GRAIN, STOCK RAISING, FRUIT GROWING, MINING, LUMBERING, FISHING IT IS NOT so long ago that agriculture was regarded as quite a secondary consideration in British Columbia. The construction of railroads and the settlement of the valleys in the wake of the miner and the lumberman, have entirely dissipated that idea. The agricultural possibilities of British Columbia are now fully appreciated locally, and the outside world is also be- ginning to realize that the Pacific Province has rich assets in its arable and pastoral lands. As far north as the fifty-fourth degree it has been practically demon- strated that apples will flourish, while in. the southern belt the more delicate fruits — peaches, grapes, and apricots, are an assured crop. On a trip through the valley one sees apple orchards with the trees fairly groaning under their loads of fruit, and pear, plum, and prune trees In like manner. In many places be- tween the trees there are rows of potatoes, cabbages, and other vegetables, showing that the land is really produc- ing a double crop. Grapes, water-melons, and muskmel- ons also thrive in the valley, and large quantities of each are grown. Tomatoes, cher- ries, and berries of all kinds are grown extensively. Wheat, oats, and corn give excellent yields. As an in- stance, one man's wheat crop this season averages 4S'A bushels to the acre. Of prunes, one orchardist grew a crop of 7,000 boxes. The apples shipped find a ready market in Calgary, Regina, and in the other cities in the prairie provinces. Prices this year are considerably better than they were a year ago. Last year this valley produced 350 carloads of fruit and vegetables, and some of the farmers have made net profits of as high as $250 an acre. Railways. — There are three transcontinental lines of railway running through this province and each has opened up a territory valuable for agriculture, mining and fishing, and also gjves opportunity for the tourist to view the most magnificent and awe- inspiring scenery on the continent. In the valleys, of which there are many, there are tracts of wonderfully rich land, largely of alluvial deposits, that give paying returns. The Columbia and Kootenay Valleys, comprising the districts of Cranbrook, Nelson, Windermere, Slocan, Golden and Revelstoke, are very rich. The eastern portion requires irrigation ; they are well suited to fruit farming and all kinds of roots and vegetables. Timber lands are said to be the best, when cleared. In the western portion of these valleys there are considerable areas The excellent quality of British Columbia fruit has found it a market in all parts of the world. Large shipments are now being made to Australia. of fertile land, suitable for fruit growing. The available land is largely held by private individuals. The valleys of the Okanagan, Nicola, Similkameen, Kettle, North and South Thompson, and the Boundary are immensely rich in possibilities. The advent of the small farmer and fruit grower has driven the cattle industry northward into the Central district of the province. The ranges are now divided into small parcels, occupied by fruit growers and small farmers. Irri- gation is necessary in most places, but water is easy to acquire. The Land Recording District of New Westminster is one of the richest agricultural districts of the province and includes all the fertile valley of the Lower Fraser. The climate is mild, with much rain in winter. The timber is very heavy and the underbrush thick. Heavy crops of hay, grain, and roots are raised, and fruit growing is here brought to perfection. The natural pre- cipitation is sufficient for all purposes. For about seventy miles along the Fraser River there are farms which yield their owners revenues from $4,000 to $7,000 a year; this land is now worth from $100 to $1,000 an acre. As much as 5 tons of hay, 120 bushels of oats, 20 tons of potatoes, and 50 tons of roots have been raised per acre. Vancouver Inland, with its great wealth of natural resources and its commanding position, is fast becoming one of the richest and most prosperous portions of the province. Its large area of agricultural land is heavily timbered and costly to clear by individual effort, but the railroad companies are clear- ing, to encourage agricultural development. Most farmers raise live stock, do some dairy- ing and grow fruit. Grains, grasses, roots, and vegetables grow to perfection and yield heavily. Apples, pears, plums, prunes, and cherries grow luxuriantly, while the more tender fruits — peaches, apricots, nectarines, and grapes attain perfection in the southern districts when carefully cultivated. Central British Columbia, through which the Grand Trunk Pacific transcontinental line gives excellent service to settlers and business men, comprises the valleys of the Bulkley, Endako, Nechaco, Fraser, and Stuart, where there is considerable land inviting to the settler. The soil and climate of the valleys extending westward to the Bulkley are adapted to grain grow- ing and cattle raising, while further westward and to within fifty miles of the west coast belt apple culture as well is successful. 38 CANADA WEST Down the Fraser from Fort George there is active development in settle- ment, and wheat, oats, barley and hay are highly productive; the climate is good. The soil is a brown silt covered by a layer of vegetable mould, and the timber is light and easy to clear. Along the Nechaco, between Prince George and Fraser Lake, is same character of soil and a similar country, there being large tracts well fitted for general farming. Native grasses yield abundant food; there is ample rainfall, and the winter climate moderates as the coast is approached. North of Fort Fraser there is good grazing and farming land, somewhat timbered and covered with rich grasses. The prevailing price is $25 an acre; owners are not partic- ularly anxious to sell. Grain. — Wheat is grown principally in the Fraser, Okanagan, and Spallumcheen Valleys and in the country around Kamloops. Barley of excellent Quality is grown in many parts of the province. Oats are the principal grain crop, the quality and yield be- ing good, and the demand beyond the quantity grown. Potatoes, turnips, carrots, mangolds, and all other roots grow in profusion wherever their cultivation has been attempted. Hop culture is carried on in the Okanagan, Agassiz, and ChJUlwak dis- tricts. British Columbia hops command a good price in Eng- land, and recently Eastern Canada and Australia have bidforthem. Some attention has been given to the cultiva- tion of sugar-beets, tobacco, and celery, and in each case with the most gratifying results, ensuring an early expansion of operations in all of these lines. The annual total agricultural production of the province is about 145^ million dollars, but there is imported another 15 million dollars' worth. British Columbia agriculturists and fruit growers are particularly fortunate in having a splendid home market for their products, and for their surplus there is the enormous present and illimitable future demand of the prairie prov- inces, assuring always good prices and ready sale for everything they produce. Stock. — Dairying pays handsomely in British Columbia. The local demand for butter is constantly increasing and the prices secured are higher than in Eastern Canada. The province possesses many elements necessary to con- stitute it a great dairying country. There are extensive areas of pastoral land In the interior, while increased cultivation in the lower country will form the necessary feeding ground. With a plentiful supply of good water, and luxuriant and nutritious grasses, there is every required facility added. Cattle raising on a large scale was formerly one of the chief industries of the province, and many of the large ranches are still making money, but the tendency of late has been for smaller herds and the improvement of the stock. Sheep raising, is another branch of agriculture capable of great expansion. Hogs, in small farming, are probably the most profitable of live stock, owing to the general demand for pork, bacon, ham, and lard, and much attention is now being given to raising them. Over 1 million dollars of hog products are imported annually, and prices are always high. The demand for good horses, especially heavy draft and working animals, is always increasing, and prices are conse- quently high. Dairy Products.— This industry reaches a valuation of nearly 4 million dollars annually. Poultry raising is a branch of general farming which is beginning to receive special attention in British Columbia. The home mar- ket Is nowhere nearly supplied, neither with eggs or poultry, large quantities being Imported from Manitoba, On- tario, California, Washington, and elsewhere. Good prices prevail at all seasons of the year. Every portion of British Columbia is suitable for poultry raising. In the Coast dis- tricts, hens, ducks, and geese can be raised to great advantage, and the dry belts and uplands are partic- ularly w ell adapted to turkeys. Mineral Resources. — The pre- cious and useful metals abound in British Columbia, and it was the dis- covery of placer gold in the Cariboo One of the big assets of British Columbia is its supply of fir, pine, cedar and other woods. The Douglas fir grows to immense proportions. There remains in the Province supply sufficient for years to come. District that first attracted attention to the province. Occurrences of copper, gold, silver and lead ores are widespread, and mining is being car- ried on in those districts convenient to transportation facilities. Coal is extensively mined in Vancouver Island, in the Crow's Nest Pass district and, more recently, in the Nicola Valley region. Miners' wages are high, and there is usually a constant demand for workmen. The value of the mineral production last year was 32 million dollars, of which coal contributed 9 million and copper 8 million dollars. Timber. — Next in importance, at the present time, are the timber resources. It is admitted that the largest remaining areas of first-class Wide ranges of luxuriant building timbers in the world grasses, a suitable climate, are in British Columbia. The and a wide market make lumber industry has increased dairying in British Columbia enormously of recent years highly profitable. owing to the demand from the rapidly growing prairie provinces. For many years to come it will have to un- dergo constant expansion to keep pace with the ever- growing needs of the untim- bered prairie regions. The principal woods are Douglas fir, cedar, spruce, tamarac, pine and hemlock. Fisheries. — This province has risen to the rank of the greatest fish-producing prov- ince in the Dominion. Besides its extensive salmon fisheries, it has lying within easy distance of the northern part of its coast line, ex- tremely rich halibut grounds, while herring are in great abundance all along its shores. These various branches of the fishing industry are being rapidly developed, but there is yet room for great expansion. The value of the fisheries of the provinces for 1913 amounted to about 11 million dollars. Climate. — Near the coast the average number of days in the year below freezing is fifteen; rainfall varies from 40 to 100 inches. Farther inland the average number of days in the year below freezing is sixty-five. The northern districts of Hazleton, Pearl River, Cassiar, and Atlin are somewhat colder. Ocean currents and moisture-laden winds from the Pacific exercise a moderat- ing influence upon the climate of the coast. The westerly winds, arrested in their passage east by the Coast Range, create what is known as the "dry belt" east of the mountains; the higher air currents carry the moisture to the lofty peaks of the Selkirks, and the precipitation in the eastern portion of the province is greater than in the central district, thus a series of alternate moist and dry belts is formed. The province offers a choice of a dry or moist climate, an almost total absence of extremes of heat and cold, freedom from malaria, and conditions most favourable. A Rich Province. — British Columbia coal measures are sufficient to supply the world for centuries. It possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable timber in the world. The mines are in the early stages of their development, and have already produced about 400 million dollars, of which coal con- tributed 122 million. The value of the mineral production in 1911 was 30 million dollars. The fisheries return an average annual yield of nearly 10 million dollars. British Columbia's trade, per head of population, is the largest in the world. The chief ex- ports are salmon, coal, gold, silver, copper, lead, timber, masts and spars, furs and skins, whale-oil, sealskins, hops, and fruit. How to get the Land.— Crown lands in British Columbia are laid off and surveyed into townships, containing thirty-six sections of one square mile in each. The head of a family, a widow, or single man over the age of eighteen years, and a British subject (or any alien upon making a declaration of his intention to become a British subject) may for agricultural purposes record any tract of unoccupied and unreserved crown land (not being an Indian settlement), not exceeding 160 acres in extent. Free homesteads are not granted. The pre-emptor of land must pay $1 an acre for it, live upon it for two years, and improve it to the extent of $2.50 per acre. CANADA WEST 39 Settlers from United States Well Satisfied With Canada. Many of Them Had Returns of From $20 to $35 per Acre in 1915 THE reports given by former Amer- icans now resi- dents of Canada give convincing evidence of the satisfactory con- dition in which they are now placed. Mr. our Nyberg f Shell Lake. Sask.. for hi* first crop put in 17 acres of wheat anil is amply repaid for his labor. His neighbours got 25 and 35 bushels. The soil, he says, "is of the very best quality. About two miles southwest of Shellbrooke there are several townships in w : hich most of the land is yet open for honiesteading. The .-oii is rich, but the land somewhat rolling and a little wooded in places, but not sufficient to interfere with farming. There is also plenty of good meadow-land We have a good Scandinavian settlement; are about 20 miles from railroad station— Leask or North Battleford — and I think this is a splendid place for new settlers." O. V. strand writes from Zealand ia. Sask.: "We have had the biggest crop ever raised here — wheat averaged over 40 bushels to the acre on stubble and summer fallow, and oats over 73 bushels on stubble, and prices are good." Mr. Hans Ellcsen, Granum. Alberta: "We got a fine crop this year — from 40 to 60 bushels of wheat per icre and the farmers are very well pleased with results, espeeiallv as prices are good." Mr. Henry Padberg of Muhlbach. Alberta, had a yield from 170 acres of over 3,600 bushels of wheat and 2.300 bushels of oats. On a farm near his place, where he had worked part of the time, they got 100,000 bushels of wheat and 30.000 bushels of oats on 3,200 acres. Edward K. K^ani writes from Ratner, Sask., in December. 1915: "I returned a few days ago from a trip down to where I have been during thresh- ing time in order to make a little extra money. Where I worked, about 150 miles southwest from Saskatoon, they had a most abundant crop. As an example, w ill mention that one farmer got 14.500 bushels this year. While traveling along the line from Elrose north 1 noticed such a great number of new- buildings added to the little towns — they contain the farmers' wheat — as the elevators were all full. Winter is here now, but up to date have had no cold to speak of. We have a little brush for protection and fuel. The settlers in this district got a fine crop, too. and have every rea- son to be satisfied. A new ehurch is being built in our community and we hope it will soon be completed." Mr. Dan Swanson writes from Kaiser, Sask., in September, 1915. as follows: "We have had a dry and warm summer with some showers, which have helped the crops. We have fine wheat fields now and they are very valuable as the price on wheat is way up. A lot of the farm- ers were quite worried about how to get help to harvest the crop this fall, as a lot of our young men have gone to the war, but everything seems to turn out all right as a lot of men have come here from the States and there is no lack of help now. They are all happy to get work and are paid S3 per day and board. B. E. Skeith of New Dayton, Alberta, got an average of 48 bushels on 670 acres wheat. He worked during harvest (for the Miami Farming Co., Dayton, Alberta), where the average was 53 bushels of wheat per acre on 4,000 acres. Pastor O. J. Saetre writes from Kincaid, Sask., in November, 1915: "The crop has been way above expectations here this year. A good deal is not. threshed yet in this district, though we have had a tieautiful fall, but the yield was so immense < up to 76 bushels per acre) that the threshers could not stand to do any more, but we are in hopes that the 2ood weather will continue yet a while until all is finished." Helge Amondson writes as follows There are thousands of Canadian farmers this winter visiting their old homes and friends in your state. Per- haps you know some of these. If so, ask them about the progress they are making in Canada. from Spalding, Sask.. in No- vember. 1915: " We got a fine crop in this distriet this year. The wheat went, from 35 to 52 bushels per acre and oats from 70 to 90. and threshing is almost finished. Winter has set in with quite a little snow, but the weather is fine. It looks now as though we would have a rail- road here next summer " John P. My lire writes from Paddling Lake, Sask., on December. 1915, as fol- lows: "Paddling Lake is a post office. We have the best land one can find with a little timber on it. We got over 30 bushels of wheat and 70 bushels of oats per acre on new broken land We have four threshing outfits here now. We got potatoes this fall that were as big as any I ever saw, and cabbage as big as the head of an ox." Bernhard J. Johnson, living near Tribune, Sask., writes in December, 1915: "Our little town of Tribune is not as large as Winnipeg but we can get anything we want here anyway. There are not many Scandinavians located in tow n, but a great number of them in the settle- ment in which I live, and there is room for more. Of course, most of the homestead land was taken up years ago, which shows that a good thing advertises itself. The land is good for all kinds of farming— as good as anyone could wish for. When I say that there is room for more Scandinavians in this district, I mean that good land can yet be bought at reasonable figures, but as soon as the war is over, there is no doubt but what land will go up in value." Report from one of Canada's German Settlements Bruno, SasK., January 10, 1916. Comparative Areas and Yields of Wheat, Oats and Barley in the Northwest Provinces for the years 1012-13-14-15. Provinces 1912 1913 1914 1915 Acres Bushels Acres Bushels Acres Bushels Acres Bushels Manitoba— Wheat 2,839,000 63,017,000 2,804,000 53,331,000 2,616,000 38,605,000 3,342,000 84,282,000 Oats 1,348,000' 57,154.000 1,398,000 56,759,000 1,331,000 31,951,000 1,441,000 65,263,000 481, 000| 15,826,000 496,000 14,305,000 468.000 9,828,000 490,000 16,543,000 Saskatchewan— 5,582,000; 106.960,000 5,720.000 121,559,000 5,348,300 73,494,000 6,838,100 171,146,000 Oats . . 2,556.000; 117,537,000 2,755,000 114.112,000 2,520,000 61,816,000 2,937,000 142,121,000 Barlev. 292,000. 9,595,000 332.000 10,421,000 290,000 4,901,000 287,000 9,945,000 Alberta— Wheat 1,590,000, 34,303,000 1,512,000 34,372,000 1,371,100 28,850,000 1,563,700 48,772,000 Oats 1,461.000; 67,630.000 1,639.000 71,542,000 1,502,000 57,076,000 1,912,000 98,296.000 Barlev 187,000' 6,170,000 197,000 6,334.000 178,000 4,806 000 195.0110 6.542.000 Mr. C. J. Broughton. Canadian Government Agent, Chicago, 111. Dear Mr. Broughton: "Ten years ago I first met you and talked homesteading in Canada: with your advice I went to Bruno, Sask., picked out my homestead and stayed until November 1, 1915. Then came back for mv stock. I had a small sum of money w hen I left and to-day have 100 head of cattle, 15 head of horses, 320 acres of land and improvements, everything paid for and clear. "The climate is most healthy and my wife and I are quite satisfied with everything. Am now a Canadian citizen though formerly a German from Illinois, and I want to say to you that there is a big German colony surrounding me and they are all well satisfied with their sur- roundings, and with the Canadian Government: all have done well. The thermometer goes pretty low at times — sometimes 35 to 40 be- low zero, but none of us from Illinois fear the cold as it does not seem to affect us as it did in Illinois — it is a dry cold. " This year our wheat averaged from 40 to 45 bushels to the acre; oats from 60 to 70 bushels and prices very good. "Thanking you for your advice and help and hoping to see you at our home, I am, Yours truly, (Signed) Henry Deist." The above are Dominion Government figures. The figures given by the Provincial Government are higher than these. Thousands of Homesteads Available The natural resources of Western Canada are most varied and abundant; first and foremost is the soil, of which a well known English Agriculturist and Chemist, Professor Tanner, wrote: "Although we have hitherto considered the black earth of central Russia the richest in the world, that land now has to yield its distinguished position to the rich, deep, black soil of Western Can- ada." Other experts bear equally strong testimony to its value. Notwith- standing this, the amount of land under cultivation is not one-tenth of that available. There are at least 175,000 homesteads open for settlement at the present time equal in quality to anything yet taken up Threshing forty-five bushels to the acre wheat in Western Canada 40 CANADA WEST GENERAL INFORMATION [PERTINENT QUERIES— EXPLICIT REPLIES] Owing to the number of questions asked daily, it has been deemed advis- able to put in condensed form, such questions as most naturally occur, giving the answers which experience dictates as appropriate, conveying the informa- tion commonly asked for. If the reader does not find here the answer to his particular difficulty, a letter to the Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa, Canada, or to any Government Agent whose name appears on the inside of the front cover of this publication, will secure full particulars. 1. Where are the lands to which reference is made ? In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta in British Columbia. 2. What kind of land is it ? The land is mostly prairie (except in British Columbia) and can be secured free from timber and stones, if desired, the soil being the very best alluvial black loam from one to two feet deep, with a clay subsoil. It is just rolling enough to give good drainage, and in places there is plenty of timber, while some is underlaid with good coal. 3. If the land is what yon say, why is the Government giving it away? The Government, knowing that agriculture is the foundation of a progressive country, and that large yields of farm produce insure prosperity in all other branches of business, is doing everything in its power to encourage settle- ment. It is much better for each man to own his own farm, therefore a free fraii- of 160 acres is given to every man who will reside upon and cultivate it. 4. Is it timber or prairie land ? The province of Manitoba has considerable open prairie, especially, in the southwest; towards the centre it is parklike with some timber belts in parts. The southern parts of Saskatchewan and Alberta are chiefly open prairie with growths of timber along the streams. As you go north or northwest about 20 per cent of the country may be said to be timbered. 5. Then as to climate ? The summer days are warm and the nights cool. The fall and spring are most delightful, although it may be said that winter breaks almost into sum- mer, and the latter lasts until October. Winters are pleasant and healthful. There are no pulmonary or other endemic complaints. Snow begins to fall about the middle of November and in March there is generally very little. Near the Rocky Mountains the snowfall is not so heavy as farther east, and the chinook winds have a tempering influence. The absence of the snowfall would be regretted by the farmer. Nature has generously provided for every mile of the country, and there is really very little choice with the exception that farther west the climate is somewhat milder. 6. Is there sufficient rainfall ? A sufficient supply can be relied upon. The most rain falls in May and June, when most needed. 7. What are the roads like ? Bridges and culverts are built where needed, and roadways are usually graded up, but not gravelled or macadamized. The natural prairie road is superior to most manufactured roads and affords good travelling in ordinary seasons and every fall and winter. 8. What sort of people are settled there, and is English generally spoken? Canadians, English, Scotch, Irish, French, and English-speaking Americans (who are going in, in large numbers), with Germans and Scandinavians. English is the language of the country and is spoken everywhere. 9. Will I have to change my citizenship if I go to Canada ? An alien, before making entry for free homestead land, must declare his intention of becoming a British subject and become naturalized before obtain- ing patent for his land. In the meanwhile he can hold possession and exercise right of ownership. If not a British subject, he must reside three years to become naturalized. To become a British subject a settler of foreign birth should make application to anyone authorized to administer oaths in a Cana- dian court. An alien may purchase land from any of the railway or land companies and hold title deed without changing his citizenship. 10. How about American money ? American money is taken everywhere in Canada at its face value. 11. Can a man who has used his homestead right in the United States take a homestead in Canada ? Yes. 12. If a British subject has taken out "citizen papers" in the United States how does he stand in Canada ? He must be "repatriated," that is, he must take out a certificate of naturalization, which can be done after three months' residence in Canada. 13. What grains are raised in western Canada ? Wheat (winter and spring), oats, barley, flax, speltz, rye and other small grain?, and corn Is grown chiefly for silo purposes. 14. How long does it take wheat to mature ? The average time is from 100 to 118 days. This short time is accounted for by the long hours of sunlight which during the growing and ripening sea- son, averages 16 hours a day. 15. Can a man raise a crop on the first breaking of his land ? ^ ' -. but it is not well to use the land for any other purpose the first year than for raising garden vegetables, or perhaps a crop of flax, as it is necessarily rough on account of the heavy sod not having had time to rot and become workable. Good yields of oats have been reported on breaking. 16. Is there plenty of hay available? In many parts there is sufficient wild hay meadow on government or vacant land, which may be rented at a very low rental, if you have not enough on your own farm. Experience has proven that timothy, brome, clover and other cultivated grasses do well. Vields of brome have been reported from two to four tons per acre. Alfalfa under proper cultivation in many places gives successful yields. 17. Do vegetables thrive and what kinds are grown ? Potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, onions,' parsnips, cabbages, peas, beans, celery, pumpkins, tomatoes, squash, melons, etc., are unequalled anywhere. 18. Can fruit be raised and what varieties ? Small fruits grow wild. The cultivated are plums, cranberries, strawberries, gooseberries, raspberries, currants. In British Columbia fruit growing of all kinds is carried on very extensively and successfully. 19. About what time does seeding begin? As a rule farmers begin their seeding from the 1st to the loth of April, sometimes continuing well into May. The average yield of all grains in western Canada would be largely increased, did not some farmers unwisely do seeding until the middle of June. 20. How is it for stock raising? The country has no equal. In many parts cattle and horses are not housed throughout the winter, and so nutritious are the wild grasses that stock is marketed without having been fed any grain. 21. In what way can I secure land in western Canada? By bonvitcading, or purchasing from railway or land companies. The Dominion Government has no land for sale. The British Columbia Govern- ment sells land to actual settlers at low figures. 22. Can I get a map or list of lands vacant and open to homestead entry? Yes, maps are published by the Department of the Interior, Ottawa, show- ing what lands are available up to a certain date. These are revised from time to time. Ask for Homestead map of province in which you are inter- ested. Grain production is also shown by maps. Ask for Cereal map of province. From these maps you may arrive at some conclusion as to what part of the country you would like full particulars about. Any Canadian Government Agent can then furnish you with complete information about the land avail- able in that particular locality. A diagram of any township, with the vacant lands marked, will be supplied free. A competent land guide can be obtained. 23. How far are homestead lands from lines of railway ? They vary, but at present the nearest will be from 15 to 20 miles. Rail- ways are being built into the new districts. 24. In which districts are located the most and best available homesteads? The character of homestead wanted by the settler will decide this. Very few homesteads are vacant in the southern districts; towards the central and northern districts of the provinces homesteads are plentiful. They comprise a territory in which wood for building purposes and fuel are plentiful. 25. Is there any good land close to Rocky mountains? The nearer you approach the mountains the more hilly it becomes, and the elevation is too great for grain raising. Cattle and horses do well. 26. If a man take his family there before he selects a homestead can he get temporary accommodation? At the following places the Government maintains Immigration halls with free temporary accommodation for those desiring such and supplying their own provisions. It is always better for the head of the family, or such member of it as may be entitled to homestead, to select and make entry for lands before moving family: Biggar, Brandon, Calgary, Caster, Cereal, Edmonton, Edson, Emerson, Entwistle, Gravelburg, Herbert, Kerrobert, Lloydminster, Lethbridge, Moose Jaw, North Battleford, North Portal, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon, Strathcona, South Battleford, Swift Current, Tisdale, Unity, Vegreville, Vermilion, Viking, Virden, Wainwright, Wilkie, Yonkers. 27. Where must I make my homestead entry ? At the Dominion Lands Office for the district. 28. Can homestead lands be reserved for a minor? An agent of Dominion Lands may reserve a quarter-section for a minor over 17 years of age until he is 18, if his father, or other near relative live upon homestead or upon farming land owned, not less than 80 acres, within nine miles of reserved homestead. The minor must make entry in person within one month after becoming 18 years of age. 29. Can a person borrow money on a homestead before receiving patent? No; contrary to Dominion Lands Act. 30. Would the time I was away working for a neighbour, or on the railway or other work count as time on my homestead? Only actual residence on your homestead will count, and you must reside on homestead six months in each of three years. 31. Is it permissible to reside with brother, who has filed on adjoining land? A homesteader may reside with father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or sister on farming land owned solely by him or her, not less than 80 acres, or upon homestead entered for by him or her not more than nine miles from entrant's homestead. Fifty acres of homestead must be brought under culti- vation, instead of 30 acres, as is the case when there is direct residence. 32. How shall I know what to do or where to go when I reach there ? Make a careful study of this pamphlet and decide in a general way on the district in which you wish to settle. Then put yourself in communication with your nearest Canadian Government Agent, whose name appears on the second page of cover. At Winnipeg, and in the offices of any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Canada, are maps showing vacant lands. Having decided on the district where you will make your home, the services of a competent land guide may be secured to assist in locating. 33. What is the best way to get there ? Write your nearest Canadian Government Agent for routes, and settlers' low railway rate certificate good from the Canadian boundary to destination for passengers and freight. 34. How much baggage will I be allowed on the Canadian railways? 150 pounds for each full ticket. 35. Are settlers' effects bonded through to destination, or are they ex- amined at the boundary? If settler accompanies effects they will be examined at the boundary, with- out any trouble; if effects are unaccompanied they will go through to the nearest bonding (or customs) point to destination. 36. In case settler's family follow him what about railway rates ? On application to Canadian Government Agent, settlers' low railway rate certificate will be forwarded, and they will be given the settlers' privilege. 37. What is the duty on horses and cattle if a settler should want to take in more than the number allowed free into Canada ? When for the improvement of stock, free; otherwise, over one year old, they will be valued at a minimum of JI50 per head, and duty will be 25 per cent. 38. How much money must one have to start grain farming and how little can he do with if he goes ranching? See "Success Achieved by Various Methods." Page 38 herein. 39. How can I procure lands for ranching ? They may be leased from the Government at a low rental. Write for full particulars to Secretary of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. See inside back cover. 40. In those parts which are better for cattle and sheep than for grain, what does a man do if he has only 160 acres ? If a settler should desire to go into stock raising and his quarter-section of 100 acres should not prove sufficient to furnish pasture for his stock, he can make application to the Land Commissioner for a lease for grazing lands for a term of tw nty-one years, at a very low cost. 41. Where is information to be had about British Columbia? Apply to Secretary Provincial Bureau of Information, Victoria, B. C. 42. Is living expensive? Sugar, granulated, "14 to 18 lbs. for $1, according to fluctuation of market. Tea, 30 to 50 cents a lb.; coffee, 30 to 45 cents a tb.; flour, $2.25 to $3.00 per 98 lbs. Dry goods about eastern Canada prices. Cotton somewhat dearer than in United States, and woollen goods noticeably cheaper. Stoves and furniture somewhat higher than eastern prices, owing to freight charges. 43. Are the taxes high? Taxes on occupied lands are very low being principally for schools, which run from J10 to S14.50 per quarter section. Other taxes are those largely controlled by residents of the municipalities. These vary in the different provinces, and arc such as hail insurance tax, telephone tax. There is also CANADA WE ST road work tax In the case of non-residents in Saskatchewan and Alberta an additional surtax is imposed. 44. Does the Government tax the settler if he lets his cattle run on Govern- ment lands ? What about line fences ? The settler is not required to pay a tax for allowing his cattle to run on Government land, but it is advisable to lease land from the Government for haying or graiing purposes, when needed. If one fences his land, his adjoining neighbour has to stand a proportionate share of the cost of the fence adjoining his property, or build one-half of it himself. 45. Where can a settler sell what he raises? Is there any competition amongst buyers, or has he got to sell for anything he can get? Grain is purchesed at ele.ntors and forwarded to the great markets in other parts of Canada, the United States and Europe. Canadian flour mills, oatmeal mills, ai d breweries use millions of bushels of grain annually. To the west and northwest of the prairie country lie mining regions, which are dependent upon the prairies for supplies and will to a great extent continue to be. Beef is bought on the hoof at the home of the farmer or rancher. Buyers scour the country in quest of this product. 46. Where can material for a house and sheds be procured, and about what would it cost ? What about fuel? Do people suffer from the cold ? Though there are large tracts of forest in the Canadian west there are locali- ties where building timber and material is limited, but this has not proven any drawback as the Government has made provision that should a man settle on a quarter-section deprived of timber, he can, by making application to the Dominion Lands Agent, obtain a permit to cut on Government lands free of charge the following, vis.: (1.) 3,000 lineal feet of building timber, measuring no more than 12 inches at the butt, or 9,250 feet board measure. (2.) 400 roofing poles. (3.) 2.000 fencing rails and 500 fence posts. 7 feet long, and not exceeding five (5) inches in diameter at the small end. (4.) 30 cords of dry fuel wood for firewood. The settler has only the expense of the cutting and hauling to his homestead. The principal districts are within easy reach of firewood: the settlers of Alberta and Saskatchewan are particularly favoured, especially along the various streams, from some of which they get all the coal they require, at a trifling cost. No one in the country need suffer from the cold on account of scarcity of fuel. 47. Is it advisable to go into a new country during the winter months with uncertain weather conditions ? A few years ago, when settlement was sparse, settlers were advised to wait until March or April Now that so many have friends in western Canada there need be no hesitation when to start. Lines of railway penetrate most of the settled districts, and no one need go far from neighbours already settled. There is no longer the dread of pioneering, and it is robhed of the romance that once surrounded it. With farm already selected, it is perfectly safe, and to the prospective homesteader he can get some sort of occupation until early spring, when he will be on the ground ready for it. 48. What does lumber cost ? Spruce boards and dimensions, about $20 per thousand feet; shiplap, $23 to $2S; flooring and siding, $2."> up. according to quality; cedar shingles, from $3.50 to $4.25 per thousand. These prices fluctuate. 49. What chance is there for employment when a man first goes there and isn't working on his land ? There are different industries through the country, outside of farming and ranching, such as saw mills, flour mills, brick-yards, railroad building in the .summer, and lumbering in the winter. The chances for employment are good as a large percentage of those going in and those already there farm so much that they must have help, and pay good wages. During the past two seasons from twenty to thirty thousand farm labourers have been brought in each year from the eastern provinces and the United States to assist in caring for the large crops. The capable and willing worker is sure to succeed in Canada 50. Can I get employment with a farmer so as to become acquainted with local conditions? This can be done through the Commissioner of Immigration at Winnipeg, who is in a position toofier engagements with well established farmers. Men experienced in agriculture may expect to receive from $25 up per month with board aud lodging, engagements, if desired, to extend for twelve months. Summer wages are from $30 to $35 per month: winter wages $10 to $15. During harvest wages are higher than this. 51. If I have had no experience and simply desire to learn farming in westsrn Canada before starting on my own account? Young men aud others unacquainted with farm life will find positions through the (iovernment officers at Winnipeg. Wages are dependent upon experience and qualification. After working for a year in this way, the knowledge acquired will be sufficient to justify you in gung into farming on your own account. 52. Are there any schools outside the towns? School districts cannot exceed five miles in length or breadth, and must contain at least four actual residents, and twelve, children between the ages of five and sixteen. In almost every locality, where these conditions exist, schools have been established. 53. Are churches numerous? The various denominations are well represented and churches are being built rapidly even in the most remote districts. 54. Can water be secured at reasonable depth? In most places it can be had at from fifteen to forty feet, while in other places wells have been sunk to fifty or sixty feet. 55. Where are free homesteads to-day, and how far from railway ? In some well settled districts it may be possible to secure one. but such chances are few. Between the lakes in Manitoba as well as north and south- east of Winnipeg. In the central portions of Saskatchewan, Alberta and west of Moose Jaw and Swift Current. A splendid homestead area is that lying north of Battleford, and between Prince Albert and Edmonton. One will have to go at least twelve or fifteen miles from a line of railway at present, but extensions will soon make many homesteads available. WHAT TO TAKE WITH YOU VALUABLE HINTS FOR THE MAN ABOUT TO START The newcomer may start for western Canada during any month in the year. Railroads earn' him to within a short distance of his new home. The country roads are pood and there is settlement in all parts, so that shelter is easily reached. Temporary provision is required for the family's arrival, when better may be made. If going in the winter months, it is well to have a pair of good strong sleds. As teams cost S5.00 a day take along your horses and do your own hauling. As they require care, write ahead to some livery barn for room. In shipping your horses have them loaded by the best shipper in your home town. For feeding on the way, put in two-by-four cleats breast high on the horses, and fix to fit the end of a stout trough which is dropped in, afterwards nailing on a top cleat. If they have been used to corn, take along twenty bushels for each horse, if possible, not only to feed along the way, but to use while breaking them in to an oat diet. You need both hay and oat straw on the cars. The new arrival may have to pay S7.00 a ton for hay and 40 cents per bushel for oats. Railroad construction consumes lots of both, and not half the farmers take time in the fall to put up plenty of hay. Bring all the horses you can. Five big horses can pull a twelve-inch gang through the sod, but six can do it easier and you can use five on the harrow. You can hitch a team to a goat, or scrubber as they call them here, and lead them behind the drill, making your ground smooth and packing it lightly, as you put in the seed. If you have been intending to bring eight horses, bring twelve; if you were going to bring twelve, bring sixteen. The first two years on the new land is hard on horses, and you will need plenty. If you have any spare time or can get work, they bring in money. Two men in mind cleared over 8600.00 apiece doing outside work this last summer. They worked on the roads, in harvest and threshing, and received So.00 per day for man and team. One can get all the outside breaking one's team can do at $4.00 per acre, so horse power is the main thing. Take a supply of meat along, also lard, canned goods, and other things for your cellar. One settler took a sugar barrel packed with canned fruit, and had not a single can broken or frozen, wrapping each in a whole newspaper and then packing in between with old rags, worn out underwear, old vests and such goods as might other- wise be thrown away. Remember there is no old attic or store-room to go to on the new farm. Cooked goods are also good. In the cold weather roasted meat keeps well. Cookies keep fresh in a tin box. Bring your cows and also your cream separator. The latter will not sell for much and is useful here, as you have no place to store quantities of milk. Bring at least your two best cows with you on the journey. P.tck up a supply of groceries in such a way that you can get at them easily. Corn starch, tapioca and similar packages are easy to handle while moving, and a big box of such things make cooking easy for the first few weeks. Do not sell anything that can be used in your new farming. Old belts, singletrees, doubletrees, and such goods are worth far more away out on the prairies than on the old improved farm, and they will cost more there. Bring all sorts of tools and wagon gears with you; you will save money by doing so; anvil, drills, old bolts, and screws, etc., come in handy. Bring your stock remedies. You will be far from a veteri- narian. Boracic acid comes in handy, so does a medicine cabinet for the household, with carbolic salve, liniments, etc. One of the first things you will need is a hayrack, and you will not have time to build one before it is needed, so take the old one or build a new one and take it with you. It can be used for crating and for partitions and other purposes in loading the car. Make the sides of the rack quite close and have a solid bottom. Bring along your base-burner. Coil and wood are plentiful. So far from town one needs big supplies of kerosene, so bring a steel barrel that will not become leaky. You can buy oil cheaper by the barrel and it saves trouble. Also bring a good oil stove. It will do the baking and save hauling fuel in the long working season. / Have a sm ill tank made to carry water in the cars for the horses, to hold two barrels, about three feet in diameter and four high, the top soldered on, with a lid just large enough to get in a pail. It also will be useful to haul water for the house when you land.